What every MD, immunologist, virologist and epidemiologist should know about vitamin D and the immune system

The articles cited here with their names in bold are crucial to understanding the immune system's dependence on good 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels - and so are essential knowledge for the proper prevention and treatment of COVID-19, sepsis, Kawasaki Disease, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome etc.

Most MDs DO NOT UNDERSTAND how the entire immune system depends on good, 50ng/m 125nmol/L levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D - which is 2 to 10 times what most people have without lots of UV-B exposure and/or proper vitamin D2 supplementation.

../ To the main page of this site.

18 September 2021 Major revision - much improved.  (First established 2021-06-13.)
Robin Whittle rw@firstpr.com.au  Twitter: https://twitter.com/RobinWhittle3 Substack: https://nutritionmatters.substack.com


Disclaimer for those who are not healthcare professionals:

You are reading the best efforts of an electronic technician and computer programmer.   The following will hopefully help you understand the most pertinent research, but should not be mistaken for medical advice.  Medical advice is what you get after a doctor has examined you. 

Even if I was a doctor, I haven't examined you!  Doctors have a vast amount of knowledge and experience and can bring this all to bear on your particular condition.  I can tell you a lot about vitamin D and a few other neglected health matters, but I haven't even done a first aid course.

Please read at least the abstracts of the articles I link to.  Don't take my word for anything.  If, with the help of Wikipedia and general web searching, you can't understand one or more research articles and how they might apply to you and your family, please ask your doctor or other healthcare professional to read this page and the research articles themselves.

Doctors can't read the constant deluge of research articles.  This page cites and summarises the most important articles - some of which are not widely known even to many vitamin D researchers and vitamin D aware doctors and nurses.

Contents

Page
Description
Last update
#00-links
Links to the crucial articles
2021-09-18
#01-mds
All MDs need to know . . . just the text.
2021-09-18
#02-graphs
Graphs and diagrams for the above.
2021-09-18
#03-if
If for the last decade or so all MDs had understood and acted in accordance with the best vitamin D research . . . AND if most people had accepted the nutritional advice they would consequently have given, there would be no pandemic and human health, happiness and productivity would be vastly better than it is today.
2021-09-18
#04-cortico
Prednisone, dexamethasone etc. are widely used to suppress excessive inflammation, with, too-often,  severe and deadly consequences.  These treatments would generally be unnecessary if the patient's circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D was repleted, safely, over 50ng/ml 125nmol/L with a single, small, oral dose of calcifediol = 25-hydroxyvitamin D.
2021-09-18
#05-variants
Know the enemy - a list of 1,535 variants as at  2021-06-09.
2021-07-19
#99-barc
(Low-key.) In case you encounter this observational study from Barcelona: it sounds interesting but tells us nothing about calcifediol supplementation for emergency 25-hydroxyvitamin D repletion.
2021-07-19


#00-links

Links to the crucial research articles

Quraishi et al. 2014 50ng/ml 135nmol/L 25-hydroxyvitamin D required for full strength innate and adaptive responses to bacterial pathogens.  Fig 1 below #fig01.

McGregor et al. 2020 Th1 lymphocytes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients are continually hyper-inflammatory due to lack of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.  (Summary.)

Stagi et al. 2015 Children suffering from Kawasaki disease average 9.2ng/ml 25OHD.  Those with coronary artery abnormalities average only 4.9ng/ml.

Vanegas-Cedillo et al. 2021 Graph of COVID-19 severity risk according to 25OHD level. The page 492 graph and data points from other studies are in Fig 2 below #fig02.

Castillo et al. 2020  Single oral dose of 0.532mg calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) for hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Cordoba and the Faes Farma patent Fig 3 #fig03 for how this raises 25OHD levels >50ng/ml in 4 hours.  ICU admission rates reduced from 50% to 2% and deaths from 8% to zero.

The most important early treatment of all - a single oral dose of calcifediol to raise 25OHD levels in a few hours.  0.014mg per kg bodyweight means 1mg for 55 to 85kg: Prof. Sunil Wimalawansa at Linkedin 1, Linkedin 2 and calcifediol availability#calcif below

Ekwaru et al. 2014 25OHD levels by body morphology (underweight to obesity) and by D3 daily supplemental intake.  Fig 4 #fig04.

Meta analyses of COVID-19 research for vitamin D vdmeta.com, melatonin c19melatonin.com, ivermectin c19ivermectin.com, zinc c19zinc.com, quercetin c19quercetin.com, vitamin C c19vitaminc.com and fluvoxamine c19fluvoxamine.com .

Not a research article, but an important declaration which would have prevented the COVID-19 pandemic and greatly improved human health if all MDs, immunologists etc. had followed its recommendations for 40 to 60ng/ml 25OHD levels and if the public had accepted the resulting advice: The 2008 Grassroots Health Call to D*Action.

Israel et al. 2020 Detailed histograms of 25OHD level in men and women in sunny Israel, for mainstream population, ultra-orthodox Jews and Arabs.  The plight of the Arab (Muslim) women (and so their babies) is particularly extreme, with median 25OHD levels just 12ng/mlFig 8 #fig08.

Sutherland et al. 2020 UK summer-autumn and winter-spring distributions of 25OHD level by ethnicity with about 63% of whites below 20ng/ml in winter and 92% of Asians below this low level, all year round.  Data from this is represented in a graph Fig 9 #fig09.


#01-mds

All MDs, immunologists etc. need to know:

One might expect immunologists to be up-to-speed on the importance of vitamin D to immune cells, but I can find no evidence that this is the case.  I bought two molecular  immunobiology textbooks: Janeways 9th ed. (2017) and Abass 10th (2021).  These total 1500 pages of beautifully illustrated complexities.  Neither mention vitamin D in their indexes.  Janeways has one mention of autocrine and paracrine signaling, but this is for cytokines not vitamin D based autocrine/paracrine signaling: 25-hydroxyvitamin D being converted, in particular circumstances, intracellularly, to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, to alter the behavior of that individual cell or nearby cells.

Here, "vitamin D" refers to the three compounds as follows, based on vitamin D3.  There is a similar set of three for vitamin D2, but they don't work as well as the D3 ones.  (For some  historical reason, MDs in the USA often prescribe D2, not the superior, non-prescription, D3.)  See https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02-autocrine/ for more details and molecular diagrams.

Vitamin D3 = cholecalciferol. There is very little D3 in food - fortified or not.  D3 is  produced in the skin by UV-B light, but is best obtained all year round from supplement tablets or capsules.  Not a hormone.

25-hydroxyvitamin D = 25OHD = 25(OH)D = calcifediol.  Enzymes, mainly in the liver, convert circulating D3 into circulating 25OHD, over a period of days to a week.  The total level of circulating 25OHD is measured in vitamin D blood tests.  This can also be ingested, in which case it is known by its pharmaceutical name: calcifediol.  (The term "calcidiol" is sometimes used too.)  Not a hormone.

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D == 1,25OHD == 1,25(OH)2D = calcitriol: produced from 25OHD by the1-hydroxylase enzyme located in some kidney cells and in many other cell types.  1,25OHD binds strongly to the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) molecule [WP] - while D3 and 25OHD bind very weakly.  This is sometimes called "activated vitamin D". 

The VDR-1,25OHD complex finds its way to the nucleus where it up-modulates and down-modulates the transcription of typically dozens of genes.  The precise details of which genes these are varies from one cell type to the next.

The 1,25OHD produced by the kidneys goes into circulation and functions as a hormone  because its precise level, which the kidneys maintain, controls several aspects of calcium-bone metabolism in cells all over the body.   A hormone (endocrine signaling agent) is a blood-borne compound, the level of which signals to cells all over the body.  This hormonal 1,25OHD is at a much lower level than circulating 25OHD or D3.   This very low level does not significantly affect immune cells or the other cell types described next.

When other cell types outside the kidneys, including most or all types of immune cells, convert 25OHD to 1,25OHD, this 1,25OHD functions as an autocrine or paracrine signaling agent - signaling within the cell or to nearby cells, by diffusion, respectively.  In these roles, 1,25OHD is not a hormone.  The levels of 1,25OHD produced by these many cell types is at a much higher level than that of circulating, hormonal, 1,25OHD, so the detection (by VDR) of this autocrine and paracrine agent 1,25OHD is not significantly affected by hormonal 1,25OHD.  While a little of this autocrine or paracrine agent 1,25OHD may leak into circulation and so mix with the hormonal 1,25OHD, this has no significant effect on calcium-bone metabolism since the kidneys cut back their production to maintain the desired hormonal 1,25OHD level.  More details: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02-autocrine/#02-nothorm

(Sarcoidosis is an exception to this principle.  Excessive 1,25OHD is produced in granuloma - very approximately: immune cells clumping together and fighting among themselves.  This immune dysregulation raises the hormonal 1,25OHD level beyond the kidneys' control.  See https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01-supp/#sarc  for how this is frequently thought to require reducing D3 intake, while research shows it is best to increase D3 intake and so circulating 25OHD levels.)

Every one of these items is of first order importance.  They concern the necessary conditions for proper operation of the immune system

The reasons why most MDs have been so ignorant about these matters, and why many still actively resist learning new information such as this which they really need to know, is a vast and perplexing topic for another day.  Some MDs are up to speed and have been trying to raise awareness about vitamin D for years.


#02-graphs
Graphs and further links





Fig 1 Adapted directly (vector graphics, not me tracing curves) from:

Association Between Preoperative 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Hospital-Acquired Infections Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
Sadeq A. Quraishi et al. JAMA Surg. 2014-02 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/fullarticle/1782085

Further discussion:

https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02-autocrine/#04-quraishi




Fig 2  COVID-19 severity risks by 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.  See https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#vc for links to the research articles.





Fig 3  The top graph is adapted from:

Daily oral dosing of vitamin D3 using 5000 TO 50,000 international units a day in long-term hospitalized patients: Insights from a seven year experience
Patrick J McCullough, Douglas S Lehrer and Jeffrey Amend.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2019-01-04
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960076018306228 (Paywalled.)
https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.010

The bottom graph shows the desired rise in 25OHD levels, which takes about 3 months with daily 0.125mg 5000IU D3, being achieved in 4 hours with a single oral dose of 0.532mg calcifediol in healthy, presumably non-obese, adults.  This is from the Feas Farma patent for the same capsules as used by Castillo et al. 2020, who used the same single dose on day 1, followed by half this on days 3, 7, 14 etc.

Calcifediol soft capsules
Josep María SUÑÉ NEGRE, Ignacio Ortega Azpitarte, Pepa Del Arenal Barrios, Gonzalo HERNÁNDEZ HERRERO
WIPO WO 2016/124724 Al   2016-08-11
https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016124724A1/






Fig 4  Adapted from Ekwaru et al. 2014: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01-supp/a-ratios/




Fig 5 Seasonality of COVID-19 in the summer of 2020. https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/healthcare  Historical 25OHD levels from BioBank: https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2020-UK-vit-D-BAME





Fig 6 In the UK - where extraordinary efforts are made to sequence PCR-positive test swabs - the mid-2020 variants were overtaken by Alpha B.1.1.7 in December and Delta, with a halving time of 4 weeks at the end of May 2021, is being rapidly replaced by Delta B.1.617.2, doubling every 10 days, Fig 4b in Vöhringer et al. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.22.21257633v2

WHO's variant naming scheme: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants/

1,500+ lineages, some of which are considered variants, are listed below.


SARS-CoV-2 variants: Delta out-competes Alpha in May 2021 in the UK

Fig 7 The halving prevalence of Alpha and the rapid doubling Delta rates are clearer in the work of Alex Selby: http://sonorouschocolate.com/covid19/index.php?title=Growth_in_Variant_of_Concern#Graphical_output

Delta is about 2.6 times as likely as Alpha to cause hospitalisation within 14 days of diagnosis, according to page 46 of bulletin 14 (2021-06-03) at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/investigation-of-novel-sars-cov-2-variant-variant-of-concern-20201201

Bulletin 15 attributes Delta's success partly to escaping vaccine-induced and infection-acquired immunity, but mainly to superior viral performance.

Average summer UK 25OHD levels (Fig 5 #fig05) for whites are barely half of the 50ng/ml 125nmol/L everyone needs for their immune systems to work properly.  People with melanin-rich skin have much lower levels and less of a boost in summer. 

Melanin-rich sin and/or full body clothing or at least sun-avoidant lifestyles, in the absence of proper D3 supplementation, result in very low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.  This is disastrously so for Muslim women in general, especially in countries far from the equator such as the UK.  Even in sunny Israel, most Muslim (Arabic ancestry) women have extremely low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The median is probably 12ng/ml.




Fig 8 Population distributions of different 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for men and women in Israel, separated according to Arabic ancestry, ultra-orthodox Jewish faith and the rest of the population who are in neither of these groups.  These are year-round average figures.  Winter levels would be lower, so the overall curves traced by the peaks of each bar would be further to the left.  The data represented by these graphs is of the whole population, without regard to whether or not each person contracted COVID-19.  The higher bar on the far left of the Arabic women's set is higher than the one to the right, indicating that some women's levels fall into a range below the lower measurement limit, which is 4ng/ml 10nmol/L.  So their 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are 3ng/ml or so, 1/15th or less of what they need to be healthy.  Some of these women are giving birth and breastfeeding babies, who will therefore be building their bodies and brains with a terrible vitamin D deficiency - which can easily be fixed with D3 supplements, or more rapidly with calcifediol.  Other graphs from this article, and a link to it: https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2020-Israel .

Tel Aviv is 32° from the equator.  Here are the latitudes of some other major cities: Houston 30°,  Sydney 34°, Melbourne 37°, New York  41°, Paris 49°, London 51° and Edinburgh 56°.

Even the main Israeli population, which is fair-skinned and not at all sun-avoidant, has median, year round, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of only 23ng/ml or so, less than half of the 50ng/ml they need for their immune systems to work properly.  This is with some of them taking vitamin D supplements, generally at too low a level to reach 50ng/ml.

Many MDs, not knowing about the Quraishi et al. 2014 research, or the 2008 Call to D*Action
would be only somewhat concerned about the general Israeli 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels shown above, because they believe that 20ng/ml or perhaps 30ng/ml is the threshold of repletion.  However, the Quraishi et al. research shows the real level of repletion is at least 50ng/ml.

For 70kg adults 0.125mg 5000IU D3 per day will raise average levels to 50ng/ml or more (after a few months).  https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01-supp/   This is a gram every 22 years and D3 costs USD$2.50 a gram ex-factory.

It is unknown to what degree Delta or future variants would be suppressed (in terms of transmission and severity) if the great majority of people had at last 50ng/ml 25OHD.   However, it is obviously crazy to have the whole world tackling these variants when people's 25OHD levels are as low as they are today.  The only solution is supplementation. Sunshine is frequently not available, and causes DNA damage.  People with melanin-rich skin need a lot of high-elevation direct sunshine to make enough D3.   Food fortification is a scattergun approach which can never attain the required 25OHD levels.

With luck, this population-scale repletion will suppress current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants to the point of transmission rates too low to be a concern for most people, and with severe outcomes in only a few people.  

Prior immunity is not needed with good vitamin D levels, since most people's immune systems will deal with whatever variant they face, rapidly and effectively - especially if assisted by ivermectin and other early treatments.  Those without comorbidities who are infected will rarely suffer severe symptoms and will develop lasting, broad immunity (compared to that conferred by current vaccines).




Fig 9 Low 25OHD levels for white UK people and even lower levels for those with melanin rich skin.  Data from Sutherland et al. 2020: https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.019 .


#03-if
If MDs had, collectively, been doing their job properly with regards to vitamin D for the last decade or so . . .

MDs are supposed to be the ultimate authority on all matters concerning disease prevention and treatment.  (MDs insist they are this and that no-one else is qualified to be this.)  While the task is Herculean, it is ultimately the responsibility of MDs to achieve this, one way or another, including by selecting and supporting specialists to advise on particular aspects of health which, naturally, most MDs lack the time and expertise to fully investigate.

This works fine in many aspects of medicine, but for a variety of reasons - all of them bad - MDs have been extraordinarily resistant to learning the information listed above.   The D*Action MDs' and researchers' 40 to 60ng/ml recommendation should have been respected in 2008 and MDs should have worked to get everyone so supplement D3 to attain this.  The Quraishi et al. 2014 graph should have been stuck on the wall of every doctor's waiting room in the world.   Sepsis, Kawasaki disease, MIS, severe influenza, pneumonia and ARDS should all have been treated with calcifediol.

If MDs, collectively, had been doing their job with vitamin D as well as they do many other aspects of their work then there would be no COVID-19 pandemic:

They would have rejected the lousy 20ng/ml threshold of sufficiency advised by the Institute of Medicine in 2010 - which was explicitly only for the kidneys' needs for producing a very low level of hormonal 1,25OHD - despite of the advice of the D*Action team at Grassroots Health and others who wanted 40ng/ml to 60ng/ml to be the threshold, to enable the immune system to work properly.

They would have spotted the IOM's statistical blunder which set the D3 RDA at just 0.015mg 600IU/day, for the very low 20ng/ml target.  It took a few years for vitamin D researchers to spot this and estimate the RDA (for 97.5% of adults to attain this, is close to 0.175mg 7000IU/day. (Veuglers & Ekwaru 2014 linked to from https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01-supp/#iom .) 

They would have rejected the idea of an RDA due to the great variation in bodyweights for "adults", even in one country, let alone in all countries [WP], and instead devised recommended daily intakes of D3, as a ratio of bodyweight, so all people, from newborns (except those breastfed by replete moms) to the aged could, in general, attain safe > 50ng/ml 25OHD levels, without need for costly testing and medical advice and while generally avoiding the direct UV-B light which creates D3 in the skin, but which also damages DNA and so greatly raises the risk of skin cancer.

By 2020, most people could have been vitamin D replete.  It would take about a tonne of D3 a day for all of humanity, at a total ex-factory cost of around USD$1B a year - 13 US cents per person per year, plus the cost of making and distributing suitable weekly tablets or capsules.

Then there would be almost no influenza, sepsis, Kawasaki disease or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome.  Auto-immune and inflammatory diseases would be significantly reduced - but see https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#helminthsgone for the other cause of these overly-aggressive immune responses, which is harder to fix and which is the subject of promising research.  I am working on another page here: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/06-adv/about the Coimbra and similar protocols for higher than normal 25OHD levels to suppress MS, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, IBD, Crohn's disease etc. - and the search for hypotheses which explain the underlying mechanisms.  I will soon add a discussion of research which shows that helminth infection reduces the risk of severe COVID-19 by about 75%: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(21)00334-5/ .

SARS-CoV-2 would not have got very far, since most infected people would have minimal or no symptoms, and the total amount of virus shed, per such infected person, on average, would be too low, in general, to infect more than one person.

If MDs had been doing their job properly, in respect of ensuring everyone's immune system has the nutrients it needs for proper operation, they would have revised or replaced advisory bodies to get rid of big-pharma influence and those who think they have nothing to learn.  Then, in 2020 and following years, there would be no COVID-19 pandemic, or the multiple horrors it has spawned: social and economic devastation, government control, loss of freedom, inability to travel etc.

So pardon me if I get frustrated with MDs or any other professionals or so-called experts who resist or disparage attempts to bring them up to speed on vitamin D and the immune system. 

Their efforts at avoiding learning new information - and the general problem of most MDs being unable to imagine how important vitamin D is to the immune system - has much the same practical effects as those who explicitly refuse to treat COVID-19 patients: condemning millions of people to suffering, harm and perhaps death, almost all of which could have been avoided with longer-term D3 supplementation, or in the absence of this, with emergency repletion with 0.014mg/kg bodyweight calcifediol.


#04-cortico

Prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone anti-inflammation drugs raise risk of possibly deadly fungal infections - and would be largely or completely unnecessary if 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were repleted in 4 hours with a small, single, oral, dose of calcifediol

The term corticosteroids [WP] is frequently used to refer to these drugs collectively.  A subset of the corticosteroid compounds is the glucocorticoids [WP] group, which includes these four drugs.  These four (mainly methyl-prednisone and dexamethasone) are used, orally, to suppress the extreme dysregulated inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19, sepsis etc.:
These drugs mimic the effects of the hormone cortisol (AKA hydrocortisone) in reducing inflammatory responses.  They also reduce innate and adaptive immune responses.  They should not be used unless dysregulated inflammatory responses emerge.  If they are used in the early stages of COVID-19, the reduction in innate and adaptive responses causes a stronger infection.

These are heavy-duty drugs, not given lightly.  One of their ill-effects, in high doses, is psychosis: PMC6793974 .  Another is raised glucose levels in the bloodstream.

In June and July 2021, mainstream media reported on a wave of quite likely deadly black fungus infections occurring in Indian COVID-19 patients who suffered from diabetes and who were treated with large doses of corticosteroids.  In May 2021 Scientific American reported that 12,000 cases had been detected in recent months.  (BBC too: mucormycosis.) It is common in these cases for an infected eye to be removed in an effort to save the patient's life.

White fungus (aspergillosis, BBC and The Guardian) is also a problem - including in many countries other than India:

Incidence, diagnosis and outcomes of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA): a systematic review
W.H. Chong and K.P. Neu
Journal of Hospital Infection 2021-04-21
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057923/

Chong and Neu report a 13.5% incidence of this "white fungus" infection in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, with a 48.4% mortality rate.   Even if the reality was a fraction as bad this use of glucocorticoids is causing a lot of suffering, harm and death.

I propose an important principle:

Whenever doctors consider using corticosteroid / glucocorticoid drugs to suppress inflammation, they should first consider that this dysregulated immune response could better be suppressed by raising their patient's circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level safely above 50ng/ml 125nmol/L with a single, small, oral dose of calcifediol. #calcif

This would boost innate and adaptive immune responses (which the above drugs suppress) and reduce excessive inflammation by removing its primary or sole cause (other than the lack of helminths, which we currently cannot do much about at all - especially in a clinical emergency) - circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels well below 50ng/ml.

The same principle applies to vets, who are typically treating non-human animals, which for good reason, have no helminthic infections.

#05-variants
Know the enemy: 1500+ SARS-CoV-2 lineages, some regarded as variants of interest or concern, in 17 months

A full list of 1,535 (2021-06-09) SARS-CoV-2 variants, or rather lineages is:

https://cov-lineages.org/lineage_list.html

(Previously, where I got the above  data:  https://cov-lineages.org/lineage_description_list.html .  This page on constellations of mutations is also interesting: https://cov-lineages.org/constellations.html .)

Many variants are functionally the same as others, since a genetic change may not change the protein, and because some protein changes do not alter the functionality of the virus.  Those in bold are the 10 identified by the WHO as variants of interest or concern on 2021-06-09.  Those in grey bold were no longer on the WHO list on 2021-07-19, and those in red bold were on the list on this date, but not earlier.

A A.1 A.2 A.2.1  A.2.2  A.2.3  A.2.4  A.2.5  A.2.5.1  A.2.5.2  A.3    A.4     A.5  A.6  A.7  A.8  A.9  A.10  A.11  A.12  A.13  A.14  A.15  A.16  A.17  A.18  A.19  A.20  A.21  A.22  A.23  A.23.1  A.24  A.25  A.26  A.27  A.28  A.29  AA.1  AA.2  AA.3  AA.4  AA.5  AA.6  AA.7  AA.8  AB.1  AC.1  AD.1  AD.2  AD.2.1  AE.1  AE.2  AE.3  AE.4  AE.5  AE.6  AE.7  AE.8  AF.1  AG.1  AH.1  AH.2  AH.3  AJ.1  AK.1  AK.2  AL.1  AM.1  AM.2  AM.3  AM.4  AN.1  AP.1  AQ.1  AQ.2  AS.1  AS.2  AT.1  AU.1  AU.2  AU.3  AV.1  B     B.1  B.1.1  B.1.1.1  B.1.1.2  B.1.1.3  B.1.1.4  B.1.1.5  B.1.1.6  B.1.1.7 Alpha  B.1.1.8  B.1.1.10  B.1.1.12  B.1.1.13  B.1.1.14  B.1.1.15  B.1.1.16  B.1.1.17  B.1.1.20  B.1.1.25  B.1.1.26  B.1.1.27  B.1.1.28  B.1.1.29  B.1.1.30  B.1.1.31  B.1.1.32  B.1.1.33  B.1.1.34  B.1.1.35  B.1.1.36  B.1.1.37  B.1.1.38  B.1.1.39  B.1.1.40  B.1.1.41  B.1.1.43  B.1.1.44  B.1.1.45  B.1.1.46  B.1.1.47  B.1.1.48  B.1.1.49  B.1.1.50  B.1.1.51  B.1.1.52  B.1.1.53  B.1.1.54  B.1.1.55  B.1.1.56  B.1.1.57  B.1.1.58  B.1.1.59  B.1.1.60  B.1.1.61  B.1.1.62  B.1.1.63  B.1.1.64  B.1.1.65  B.1.1.66  B.1.1.67  B.1.1.70  B.1.1.71  B.1.1.72  B.1.1.73  B.1.1.74  B.1.1.75  B.1.1.76  B.1.1.77  B.1.1.78  B.1.1.79  B.1.1.80  B.1.1.81  B.1.1.82  B.1.1.83  B.1.1.84  B.1.1.85  B.1.1.86  B.1.1.87  B.1.1.88  B.1.1.89  B.1.1.90  B.1.1.91  B.1.1.92  B.1.1.93  B.1.1.94  B.1.1.95  B.1.1.96  B.1.1.97  B.1.1.98  B.1.1.99  B.1.1.100  B.1.1.101  B.1.1.102  B.1.1.103  B.1.1.104  B.1.1.105  B.1.1.106  B.1.1.107  B.1.1.108  B.1.1.109  B.1.1.110  B.1.1.111  B.1.1.112  B.1.1.113  B.1.1.114  B.1.1.115  B.1.1.116  B.1.1.117  B.1.1.118  B.1.1.119  B.1.1.120  B.1.1.121  B.1.1.122  B.1.1.123  B.1.1.124  B.1.1.125  B.1.1.126  B.1.1.127  B.1.1.128  B.1.1.129  B.1.1.130  B.1.1.131  B.1.1.132  B.1.1.133  B.1.1.134  B.1.1.135  B.1.1.136  B.1.1.137  B.1.1.138  B.1.1.139  B.1.1.140  B.1.1.141  B.1.1.142  B.1.1.143  B.1.1.144  B.1.1.145  B.1.1.146  B.1.1.147  B.1.1.148  B.1.1.149  B.1.1.150  B.1.1.151  B.1.1.152  B.1.1.153  B.1.1.154  B.1.1.155  B.1.1.156  B.1.1.157  B.1.1.158  B.1.1.159  B.1.1.160  B.1.1.161  B.1.1.162  B.1.1.163  B.1.1.164  B.1.1.165  B.1.1.166  B.1.1.167  B.1.1.168  B.1.1.169  B.1.1.170  B.1.1.171  B.1.1.172  B.1.1.173  B.1.1.174  B.1.1.175  B.1.1.176  B.1.1.177  B.1.1.178  B.1.1.179  B.1.1.180  B.1.1.181  B.1.1.182  B.1.1.183  B.1.1.184  B.1.1.185  B.1.1.186  B.1.1.187  B.1.1.189  B.1.1.190  B.1.1.191  B.1.1.192  B.1.1.193  B.1.1.194  B.1.1.195  B.1.1.196  B.1.1.197  B.1.1.198  B.1.1.199  B.1.1.200  B.1.1.201  B.1.1.202  B.1.1.203  B.1.1.204  B.1.1.205  B.1.1.206  B.1.1.207  B.1.1.208  B.1.1.209  B.1.1.210  B.1.1.211  B.1.1.212  B.1.1.213  B.1.1.214  B.1.1.215  B.1.1.216  B.1.1.217  B.1.1.218  B.1.1.219  B.1.1.220  B.1.1.221  B.1.1.222  B.1.1.223  B.1.1.224  B.1.1.225  B.1.1.226  B.1.1.227  B.1.1.231  B.1.1.232  B.1.1.233  B.1.1.234  B.1.1.235  B.1.1.236  B.1.1.237  B.1.1.238  B.1.1.239  B.1.1.240  B.1.1.241  B.1.1.242  B.1.1.243  B.1.1.244  B.1.1.245  B.1.1.246  B.1.1.247  B.1.1.248  B.1.1.249  B.1.1.250  B.1.1.251  B.1.1.252  B.1.1.253  B.1.1.254  B.1.1.255  B.1.1.256  B.1.1.257  B.1.1.258  B.1.1.259  B.1.1.260  B.1.1.261  B.1.1.262  B.1.1.263  B.1.1.264  B.1.1.265  B.1.1.266  B.1.1.267  B.1.1.268  B.1.1.269  B.1.1.270  B.1.1.271  B.1.1.272  B.1.1.273  B.1.1.274  B.1.1.275  B.1.1.276  B.1.1.277  B.1.1.278  B.1.1.279  B.1.1.280  B.1.1.281  B.1.1.282  B.1.1.283  B.1.1.284  B.1.1.285  B.1.1.286  B.1.1.287  B.1.1.288  B.1.1.289  B.1.1.290  B.1.1.291  B.1.1.292  B.1.1.293  B.1.1.294  B.1.1.295  B.1.1.296  B.1.1.297  B.1.1.298  B.1.1.299  B.1.1.300  B.1.1.301  B.1.1.302  B.1.1.303  B.1.1.304  B.1.1.305  B.1.1.306  B.1.1.307  B.1.1.308  B.1.1.309  B.1.1.310  B.1.1.311  B.1.1.312  B.1.1.313  B.1.1.314  B.1.1.315  B.1.1.316  B.1.1.317  B.1.1.318  B.1.1.319  B.1.1.320  B.1.1.322  B.1.1.323  B.1.1.324  B.1.1.325  B.1.1.326  B.1.1.327  B.1.1.328  B.1.1.329  B.1.1.330  B.1.1.331  B.1.1.332  B.1.1.333  B.1.1.334  B.1.1.335  B.1.1.336  B.1.1.337  B.1.1.338  B.1.1.339  B.1.1.340  B.1.1.341  B.1.1.342  B.1.1.343  B.1.1.344  B.1.1.345  B.1.1.346  B.1.1.347  B.1.1.348  B.1.1.349  B.1.1.350  B.1.1.351  B.1.1.352  B.1.1.353  B.1.1.354  B.1.1.355  B.1.1.356  B.1.1.357  B.1.1.358  B.1.1.359  B.1.1.360  B.1.1.361  B.1.1.362  B.1.1.363  B.1.1.364  B.1.1.365  B.1.1.366  B.1.1.367  B.1.1.368  B.1.1.369  B.1.1.370  B.1.1.371  B.1.1.372  B.1.1.373  B.1.1.374  B.1.1.375  B.1.1.376  B.1.1.377  B.1.1.378  B.1.1.379  B.1.1.380  B.1.1.381  B.1.1.382  B.1.1.383  B.1.1.384  B.1.1.385  B.1.1.386  B.1.1.387  B.1.1.388  B.1.1.389  B.1.1.391  B.1.1.392  B.1.1.393  B.1.1.394  B.1.1.395  B.1.1.396  B.1.1.397  B.1.1.398  B.1.1.399  B.1.1.400  B.1.1.401  B.1.1.402  B.1.1.403  B.1.1.404  B.1.1.405  B.1.1.406  B.1.1.407  B.1.1.408  B.1.1.409  B.1.1.410  B.1.1.411  B.1.1.412  B.1.1.413  B.1.1.414  B.1.1.415  B.1.1.416  B.1.1.417  B.1.1.418  B.1.1.419  B.1.1.420  B.1.1.421  B.1.1.422  B.1.1.423  B.1.1.424  B.1.1.425  B.1.1.426  B.1.1.427  B.1.1.428  B.1.1.429  B.1.1.430  B.1.1.431  B.1.1.432  B.1.1.433  B.1.1.434  B.1.1.435  B.1.1.436  B.1.1.437  B.1.1.438  B.1.1.439  B.1.1.440  B.1.1.441  B.1.1.442  B.1.1.444  B.1.1.445  B.1.1.446  B.1.1.447  B.1.1.448  B.1.1.449  B.1.1.450  B.1.1.451  B.1.1.452  B.1.1.453  B.1.1.456  B.1.1.458  B.1.1.459  B.1.1.461  B.1.1.462  B.1.1.463  B.1.1.464  B.1.1.465  B.1.1.466  B.1.1.467  B.1.1.480  B.1.1.481  B.1.1.482  B.1.1.483  B.1.1.484  B.1.1.485  B.1.1.486  B.1.1.487  B.1.1.500  B.1.1.506  B.1.1.507  B.1.1.512  B.1.1.513  B.1.1.514  B.1.1.515  B.1.1.516  B.1.1.517  B.1.1.518  B.1.1.519  B.1.1.521  B.1.1.522  B.1.1.523  B.1.2  B.1.3  B.1.3.1  B.1.3.2  B.1.3.3  B.1.3.4  B.1.5  B.1.5.2  B.1.5.5  B.1.5.6  B.1.5.11  B.1.5.12  B.1.5.13  B.1.5.15  B.1.5.16  B.1.5.17  B.1.5.18  B.1.5.19  B.1.5.21  B.1.5.25  B.1.5.26  B.1.5.27  B.1.5.28  B.1.5.29  B.1.5.30  B.1.5.31  B.1.5.32  B.1.5.33  B.1.5.34  B.1.5.35  B.1.5.36  B.1.6  B.1.8  B.1.8.2  B.1.9  B.1.9.1  B.1.9.2  B.1.9.3  B.1.9.4  B.1.9.5  B.1.9.6  B.1.11  B.1.12  B.1.13  B.1.14  B.1.19  B.1.21  B.1.22  B.1.22.1  B.1.23  B.1.25  B.1.26  B.1.34  B.1.35  B.1.36  B.1.36.1  B.1.36.2  B.1.36.3  B.1.36.4  B.1.36.5  B.1.36.6  B.1.36.7  B.1.36.8  B.1.36.9  B.1.36.10  B.1.36.11  B.1.36.12  B.1.36.13  B.1.36.14  B.1.36.15  B.1.36.16  B.1.36.17  B.1.36.17.1  B.1.36.18  B.1.36.19  B.1.36.20  B.1.36.21  B.1.36.23  B.1.36.24  B.1.36.25  B.1.36.26  B.1.36.27  B.1.36.28  B.1.36.29  B.1.36.31  B.1.36.33  B.1.36.34  B.1.36.35  B.1.36.36  B.1.36.37  B.1.36.38  B.1.36.39  B.1.37  B.1.38  B.1.39  B.1.40  B.1.44  B.1.67  B.1.69  B.1.70  B.1.74  B.1.75  B.1.76  B.1.77  B.1.78  B.1.79  B.1.80  B.1.81  B.1.82  B.1.83  B.1.84  B.1.88  B.1.89  B.1.90  B.1.91  B.1.93  B.1.94  B.1.95  B.1.96  B.1.97  B.1.98  B.1.102  B.1.103  B.1.104  B.1.105  B.1.106  B.1.107  B.1.108  B.1.109  B.1.110  B.1.110.1  B.1.110.2  B.1.110.3  B.1.111  B.1.112  B.1.113  B.1.114  B.1.115  B.1.116  B.1.117  B.1.118  B.1.119  B.1.120  B.1.124  B.1.126  B.1.127  B.1.128  B.1.131  B.1.133  B.1.134  B.1.135  B.1.136  B.1.137  B.1.138  B.1.139  B.1.140  B.1.141  B.1.142  B.1.143  B.1.144  B.1.145  B.1.146  B.1.147  B.1.149  B.1.150  B.1.151  B.1.152  B.1.153  B.1.154  B.1.156  B.1.157  B.1.158  B.1.159  B.1.160  B.1.160.1  B.1.160.2  B.1.160.3  B.1.160.4  B.1.160.5  B.1.160.6  B.1.160.7  B.1.160.8  B.1.160.9  B.1.160.10  B.1.160.11  B.1.160.12  B.1.160.13  B.1.160.14  B.1.160.15  B.1.160.16  B.1.160.17  B.1.160.18  B.1.160.19  B.1.160.20  B.1.160.21  B.1.160.22  B.1.160.23  B.1.160.24  B.1.160.25  B.1.160.26  B.1.160.27  B.1.160.28  B.1.160.29  B.1.160.30  B.1.160.31  B.1.160.32  B.1.160.33  B.1.161  B.1.162  B.1.163  B.1.164  B.1.165  B.1.166  B.1.167  B.1.168  B.1.169  B.1.170  B.1.173  B.1.177  B.1.177.1  B.1.177.2  B.1.177.3  B.1.177.4  B.1.177.5  B.1.177.6  B.1.177.7  B.1.177.8  B.1.177.9  B.1.177.10  B.1.177.11  B.1.177.12  B.1.177.13  B.1.177.14  B.1.177.15  B.1.177.16  B.1.177.17  B.1.177.18  B.1.177.19  B.1.177.20  B.1.177.21  B.1.177.22  B.1.177.23  B.1.177.24  B.1.177.25  B.1.177.26  B.1.177.27  B.1.177.28  B.1.177.29  B.1.177.30  B.1.177.31  B.1.177.32  B.1.177.33  B.1.177.34  B.1.177.35  B.1.177.36  B.1.177.37  B.1.177.38  B.1.177.39  B.1.177.40  B.1.177.41  B.1.177.42  B.1.177.43  B.1.177.44  B.1.177.45  B.1.177.46  B.1.177.47  B.1.177.48  B.1.177.49  B.1.177.50  B.1.177.51  B.1.177.52  B.1.177.53  B.1.177.54  B.1.177.55  B.1.177.56  B.1.177.57  B.1.177.58  B.1.177.59  B.1.177.60  B.1.177.61  B.1.177.62  B.1.177.63  B.1.177.64  B.1.177.65  B.1.177.66  B.1.177.67  B.1.177.68  B.1.177.69  B.1.177.70  B.1.177.71  B.1.177.72  B.1.177.73  B.1.177.74  B.1.177.75  B.1.177.76  B.1.177.77  B.1.177.78  B.1.177.79  B.1.177.80  B.1.177.81  B.1.177.82  B.1.177.83  B.1.177.84  B.1.177.85  B.1.177.86  B.1.177.87  B.1.177.88  B.1.177.89  B.1.178  B.1.179  B.1.180  B.1.181  B.1.182  B.1.183  B.1.184  B.1.185  B.1.186  B.1.187  B.1.188  B.1.189  B.1.190  B.1.191  B.1.192  B.1.193  B.1.194  B.1.195  B.1.196  B.1.197  B.1.198  B.1.199  B.1.200  B.1.201  B.1.202  B.1.203  B.1.204  B.1.205  B.1.206  B.1.207  B.1.208  B.1.209  B.1.210  B.1.211  B.1.212  B.1.213  B.1.214  B.1.214.1  B.1.214.2  B.1.214.3  B.1.214.4  B.1.215  B.1.216  B.1.217  B.1.218  B.1.219  B.1.220  B.1.221  B.1.221.1  B.1.221.2  B.1.221.3  B.1.221.4  B.1.222  B.1.223  B.1.224  B.1.225  B.1.226  B.1.227  B.1.228  B.1.229  B.1.230  B.1.232  B.1.233  B.1.234  B.1.235  B.1.236  B.1.237  B.1.238  B.1.239  B.1.240  B.1.240.1  B.1.240.2  B.1.241  B.1.242  B.1.243  B.1.243.1  B.1.244  B.1.245  B.1.246  B.1.247  B.1.248  B.1.249  B.1.250  B.1.251  B.1.252  B.1.253  B.1.254  B.1.255  B.1.256  B.1.257  B.1.258  B.1.258.1  B.1.258.2  B.1.258.3  B.1.258.4  B.1.258.5  B.1.258.6  B.1.258.7  B.1.258.8  B.1.258.9  B.1.258.10  B.1.258.11  B.1.258.12  B.1.258.13  B.1.258.14  B.1.258.15  B.1.258.16  B.1.258.17  B.1.258.18  B.1.258.19  B.1.258.20  B.1.258.21  B.1.258.22  B.1.258.23  B.1.258.24  B.1.259  B.1.260  B.1.261  B.1.262  B.1.263  B.1.264  B.1.264.1  B.1.265  B.1.266  B.1.267  B.1.268  B.1.269  B.1.270  B.1.271  B.1.272  B.1.273  B.1.274  B.1.275  B.1.276  B.1.277  B.1.278  B.1.279  B.1.280  B.1.281  B.1.282  B.1.283  B.1.284  B.1.285  B.1.286  B.1.287  B.1.288  B.1.289  B.1.290  B.1.291  B.1.292  B.1.293  B.1.294  B.1.295  B.1.296  B.1.297  B.1.297.1  B.1.298  B.1.299  B.1.300  B.1.301  B.1.302  B.1.303  B.1.304  B.1.305  B.1.306  B.1.307  B.1.308  B.1.309  B.1.310  B.1.311  B.1.312  B.1.313  B.1.314  B.1.315  B.1.316  B.1.317  B.1.318  B.1.319  B.1.320  B.1.321  B.1.322  B.1.323  B.1.324  B.1.325  B.1.326  B.1.327  B.1.328  B.1.329  B.1.330  B.1.331  B.1.332  B.1.333  B.1.333.1  B.1.334  B.1.335  B.1.336  B.1.337  B.1.338  B.1.339  B.1.340  B.1.341  B.1.342  B.1.343  B.1.344  B.1.345  B.1.346  B.1.347  B.1.348  B.1.349  B.1.350  B.1.350.1  B.1.351 Beta  B.1.351.1  B.1.351.2  B.1.351.3  B.1.352  B.1.353  B.1.355  B.1.356  B.1.357  B.1.358  B.1.359  B.1.360  B.1.361  B.1.362  B.1.362.1  B.1.362.2  B.1.363  B.1.364  B.1.365  B.1.366  B.1.367  B.1.368  B.1.369  B.1.369.1  B.1.370  B.1.371  B.1.372  B.1.373  B.1.374  B.1.374.1  B.1.375  B.1.376  B.1.377  B.1.378  B.1.379  B.1.380  B.1.381  B.1.382  B.1.383  B.1.384  B.1.385  B.1.386  B.1.387  B.1.388  B.1.389  B.1.390  B.1.391  B.1.392  B.1.393  B.1.394  B.1.395  B.1.396  B.1.397  B.1.398  B.1.399  B.1.400  B.1.401  B.1.402  B.1.403  B.1.404  B.1.405  B.1.406  B.1.407  B.1.408  B.1.409  B.1.410  B.1.411  B.1.412  B.1.413  B.1.414  B.1.415  B.1.416  B.1.416.1  B.1.417  B.1.418  B.1.419  B.1.420  B.1.421  B.1.422  B.1.423  B.1.424  B.1.425  B.1.426  B.1.427/B.1.429 Epsilon  B.1.428  B.1.428.1  B.1.428.2  B.1.428.3    B.1.429.1  B.1.431  B.1.432  B.1.433  B.1.434  B.1.435  B.1.436  B.1.437  B.1.438  B.1.438.1  B.1.438.2  B.1.438.3  B.1.438.4  B.1.439  B.1.440  B.1.441  B.1.442  B.1.443  B.1.444  B.1.445  B.1.446  B.1.447  B.1.448  B.1.449  B.1.450  B.1.451  B.1.452  B.1.453  B.1.454  B.1.455  B.1.456  B.1.457  B.1.457.1  B.1.458  B.1.459  B.1.460  B.1.461  B.1.462  B.1.463  B.1.464  B.1.465  B.1.466  B.1.466.1  B.1.466.2  B.1.467  B.1.468  B.1.469  B.1.470  B.1.471  B.1.472  B.1.473  B.1.474  B.1.475  B.1.476  B.1.477  B.1.478  B.1.479  B.1.480  B.1.481  B.1.482  B.1.483  B.1.484  B.1.485  B.1.486  B.1.487  B.1.488  B.1.489  B.1.490  B.1.491  B.1.492  B.1.493  B.1.494  B.1.495  B.1.496  B.1.497  B.1.498  B.1.499  B.1.499.1  B.1.500  B.1.501  B.1.502  B.1.503  B.1.504  B.1.505  B.1.506  B.1.507  B.1.508  B.1.509  B.1.510  B.1.511  B.1.512  B.1.513  B.1.514  B.1.515  B.1.516  B.1.517  B.1.517.1  B.1.518  B.1.519  B.1.520  B.1.521  B.1.523  B.1.524  B.1.525 Eta  B.1.526 Iota  B.1.526.1  B.1.526.2  B.1.526.3  B.1.527  B.1.528  B.1.529  B.1.530  B.1.531  B.1.532  B.1.533  B.1.534  B.1.535  B.1.536  B.1.537  B.1.538  B.1.539  B.1.540  B.1.541  B.1.542  B.1.543  B.1.544  B.1.545  B.1.546  B.1.547  B.1.548  B.1.549  B.1.550  B.1.551  B.1.552  B.1.554  B.1.555  B.1.556  B.1.557  B.1.558  B.1.559  B.1.560  B.1.561  B.1.562  B.1.563  B.1.564  B.1.564.1  B.1.565  B.1.566  B.1.567  B.1.568  B.1.569  B.1.570  B.1.571  B.1.572  B.1.573  B.1.574  B.1.575  B.1.575.1  B.1.576  B.1.577  B.1.578  B.1.579  B.1.580  B.1.581  B.1.582  B.1.585  B.1.586  B.1.587  B.1.588  B.1.588.1  B.1.589  B.1.590  B.1.591  B.1.592  B.1.593  B.1.594  B.1.595  B.1.595.1  B.1.595.2  B.1.595.3  B.1.595.4  B.1.596  B.1.596.1  B.1.597  B.1.598  B.1.599  B.1.600  B.1.601  B.1.602  B.1.603  B.1.604  B.1.605  B.1.606  B.1.607  B.1.609  B.1.610  B.1.611  B.1.612  B.1.613  B.1.614  B.1.615  B.1.616  B.1.617  B.1.617.1 Kappa  B.1.617.2 Delta  B.1.617.3  B.1.618  B.1.619  B.1.620  B.1.621  B.1.622  B.1.623  B.2.1  B.2.6  B.2.10  B.2.11  B.2.12  B.3  B.3.1  B.4  B.4.1  B.4.2  B.4.4  B.4.5  B.4.6  B.4.7  B.4.8  B.5 B.6  B.6.1  B.6.2  B.6.3  B.6.4  B.6.5  B.6.6  B.6.7  B.6.8  B.10  B.11  B.12  B.13  B.14  B.15  B.18  B.19  B.20  B.23  B.26  B.27  B.28  B.29  B.30  B.31  B.32  B.33  B.34  B.35  B.36  B.37  B.38  B.39  B.40  B.41  B.42  B.43  B.44  B.45  B.46  B.47  B.48  B.49  B.50  B.51  B.52  B.53  B.54  B.55  B.56  B.57  B.58  B.59  B.60  B.61  C.1  C.1.1  C.2  C.2.1  C.3  C.4  C.5  C.6  C.7  C.8  C.9  C.10  C.11  C.12  C.13  C.14  C.15  C.16  C.17  C.18  C.19  C.20  C.21  C.22  C.23  C.25  C.26  C.27  C.28  C.29  C.30  C.30.1  C.31  C.32  C.33  C.34  C.35  C.36  C.36.1  C.36.2  C.37 Lamda  D.2  D.3  D.4  D.5  E.1  F.1  G.1  H.1  I.1  J.1  K.1  K.2  K.3  L.1  L.2  L.3  L.4  M.1  M.2  M.3  N.1  N.2  N.3  N.4  N.5  N.6  N.7  N.8  N.9   N.10  P.1 Gamma  P.1.1  P.1.2  P.2 Zeta  P.3 Theta  R.1  R.2  S.1  U.1  U.2  U.3  V.1  V.2  W.1  W.2  W.3  W.4  XA  Y.1  Z.1

So much for THE virus.

Humans are capable of extraordinary complex, well-coordinated, technical feats, such as all this analysis and global collection of genetic data.   Yet we are collectively so far incapable of getting sufficient 25OHD to the immune cells of most people.


#99-barc

(Low-key) Oristrell et al. 2021: Barcelona Vitamin D3 and calcifediol supplementation study

This article is not particularly significant, but the fact that it reports on D3 and calcifediol supplementation in ~100k people, prior to and into the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, makes it sound interesting.   It does not tell us anything about using calcifediol for emergency repletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which is generally the only benefit of using calcifediol instead of D3.

Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: a population-based, cohort study
J. Oristrell, J. C. Oliva, E. Casado, I. Subirana, D. Domínguez, A. Toloba, A. Balado & M. Grau
Journal of Endocrinololgical Investigation 2021-07-17
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9

For the details, please see: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/04-calcifediol/#99-barc .


Update history

2021-07-19: Added sections on corticosteroid/glucocorticoid (prednisone and dexamethasone) use in hospitalised COVID-19 patients leading to frequently deadly fungal infections and on a Barcelona  observational study of D3 and calcifediol supplementation which is less interesting than it might first appear.

2021-07-23: Added graph showing generally very low vitamin D levels of Arabic women in Israel.

2021-09-18: Major revision with more graphs and a list of the crucial articles in section 00 at the start.



© 2021 Robin Whittle   Daylesford, Victoria, Australia