What every MD, immunologist, virologist and epidemiologist should know about vitamin D and the immune system
The articles cited here with their names in bold
are crucial to
understanding the immune system's dependence on good 25hydroxyvitamin
D levels  and so are essential knowledge for the proper prevention and
treatment of COVID19, sepsis, Kawasaki
Disease, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome etc.
Most MDs DO NOT
UNDERSTAND how the entire immune system depends on good, 50ng/m 125nmol/L
levels of circulating 25hydroxyvitamin D  which is 2 to 10 times what
most people have without lots of UVB exposure and/or proper vitamin D2
supplementation.
../ To the main page of this site.
18 September 2021 Major revision  much improved. (First established 20210613.)
Robin Whittle rw@firstpr.com.au Twitter: https://twitter.com/RobinWhittle3 Substack: https://nutritionmatters.substack.com
Disclaimer for those who are not healthcare professionals:
You are reading the best efforts of an
electronic technician and computer programmer. The
following will hopefully help you understand the most pertinent
research, but should not be
mistaken for medical advice. Medical advice is what you get after
a doctor has examined you.
Even if I was a doctor, I haven't
examined you! Doctors have a vast amount of knowledge and experience and can bring this all to bear on
your
particular condition. I can tell you a lot about vitamin D and a
few other neglected health matters, but I haven't even done a first aid
course.
Please read at least the abstracts of the articles I link to. Don't take my word for anything. If, with the help of
Wikipedia
and general web searching, you can't understand one or more research
articles and how they might apply to you and your family, please ask
your doctor or other healthcare professional to read this page and the research articles themselves.
Doctors can't read the constant deluge of research articles. This page cites and summarises the
most important articles  some of which are not widely known even to
many vitamin D researchers and vitamin D aware doctors and nurses.
Contents
Page

Description

Last update

#00links

Links to the crucial articles

20210918

#01mds

All MDs need to know . . . just the text.

20210918

#02graphs

Graphs and diagrams for the above.

20210918 
#03if

If for the
last decade or so all MDs had understood and acted in accordance with
the best vitamin D research . . . AND if most people had accepted the
nutritional advice they would consequently have given, there would be
no pandemic and human health, happiness and productivity would be
vastly better than it is today.

20210918 
#04cortico

Prednisone,
dexamethasone etc. are widely used to suppress excessive inflammation,
with, toooften, severe and deadly consequences. These
treatments would generally be unnecessary if the patient's circulating
25hydroxyvitamin D was repleted, safely, over 50ng/ml 125nmol/L with a
single, small, oral dose of calcifediol = 25hydroxyvitamin D.

20210918 
#05variants

Know the enemy  a list of 1,535 variants as at 20210609.

20210719 
#99barc

(Lowkey.) In case you
encounter this observational study from Barcelona: it sounds
interesting but tells us nothing about calcifediol supplementation for
emergency 25hydroxyvitamin D repletion.

20210719 
#00links
Links to the crucial research articles
Quraishi
et al. 2014 50ng/ml 135nmol/L 25hydroxyvitamin D required for full strength innate and adaptive responses to bacterial pathogens.
Fig 1 below
#fig01.
McGregor
et al. 2020 Th1 lymphocytes of hospitalised COVID19 patients are continually hyperinflammatory
due to lack of 25hydroxyvitamin D. (
Summary.)
Stagi et al.
2015 Children suffering from Kawasaki disease average
9.2ng/ml 25OHD. Those with coronary
artery abnormalities average only
4.9ng/ml.
VanegasCedillo et al. 2021 Graph of COVID19 severity risk according to 25OHD level. The page 492 graph and data points from other studies are in
Fig 2 below
#fig02.
Castillo
et al. 2020 Single oral dose of 0.532mg calcifediol (25hydroxyvitamin D) for
hospitalised COVID19 patients in Cordoba and the
Faes Farma patent
Fig 3 #fig03 for how this raises 25OHD levels
>50ng/ml in 4 hours. ICU
admission rates reduced from 50% to 2% and deaths from 8% to zero.
The most important early treatment of all  a single oral dose of
calcifediol to raise 25OHD levels in a few hours. 0.014mg per kg
bodyweight means 1mg for 55 to 85kg: Prof. Sunil Wimalawansa at
Linkedin
1,
Linkedin
2 and
calcifediol
availability.
#calcif below
Ekwaru et al. 2014 25OHD levels by body morphology (underweight to obesity) and by D3 daily supplemental intake.
Fig 4 #fig04.
Meta analyses of COVID19 research for vitamin D
vdmeta.com, melatonin
c19melatonin.com, ivermectin
c19ivermectin.com, zinc
c19zinc.com, quercetin
c19quercetin.com, vitamin C
c19vitaminc.com and fluvoxamine
c19fluvoxamine.com .
Not a research article, but an important declaration which would have
prevented the COVID19 pandemic and greatly improved human health if
all MDs, immunologists etc. had followed its recommendations for
40 to 60ng/ml 25OHD levels and if the public had accepted the resulting advice: The 2008 Grassroots Health
Call to D*Action.
Israel et al. 2020
Detailed histograms of 25OHD level in men and women in sunny Israel,
for mainstream population, ultraorthodox Jews and Arabs. The
plight of the Arab (Muslim) women (and so their babies) is particularly
extreme, with median 25OHD levels just
12ng/ml.
Fig 8 #fig08.
Sutherland et al. 2020 UK summerautumn and winterspring distributions of 25OHD level by ethnicity with about 63% of whites below
20ng/ml in winter and 92% of Asians below this low level, all year round. Data from this is represented in a graph
Fig 9 #fig09.
#01mds
All MDs, immunologists etc. need to know:
One might expect immunologists to be
uptospeed on the importance of vitamin D to immune cells, but I can
find no evidence that this is the case. I bought two
molecular immunobiology textbooks: Janeways 9th ed. (
2017) and Abass 10th (
2021).
These total 1500 pages of beautifully illustrated complexities.
Neither mention vitamin D in their indexes. Janeways has one
mention of autocrine and paracrine signaling, but this is for cytokines
not vitamin D based
autocrine/paracrine signaling: 25hydroxyvitamin D being converted, in
particular circumstances, intracellularly, to 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D,
to alter the behavior of that individual cell or nearby cells.
Here, "vitamin D" refers to the three
compounds as follows, based on vitamin D3. There is a similar set
of three for vitamin D2, but they don't work as well as the D3
ones. (For some historical reason, MDs in the USA often
prescribe D2, not the superior, nonprescription, D3.) See
https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02autocrine/ for more details and molecular diagrams.
Vitamin D3 =
cholecalciferol.
There is very little D3 in food  fortified or not. D3 is
produced in the skin by UVB light, but is best obtained all year round
from supplement tablets or capsules.
Not a hormone.
25hydroxyvitamin D =
25OHD =
25(OH)D =
calcifediol.
Enzymes, mainly in the liver, convert circulating D3 into circulating
25OHD, over a period of days to a week. The total level of
circulating 25OHD is measured in vitamin D blood tests. This can
also be ingested, in which case it is known by its pharmaceutical name:
calcifediol. (The term "calcidiol" is sometimes used too.)
Not a hormone.
1,25dihydroxyvitamin D ==
1,25OHD ==
1,25(OH)^{2}D =
calcitriol:
produced from 25OHD by the1hydroxylase enzyme located in some kidney
cells and in many other cell types. 1,25OHD binds strongly to the
Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) molecule [WP]  while D3 and 25OHD bind very
weakly. This is sometimes called "activated vitamin D".
The VDR1,25OHD complex finds its way to the nucleus where it
upmodulates and downmodulates the transcription of typically dozens
of genes. The precise details of which genes these are varies
from one cell type to the next.
The 1,25OHD produced by the kidneys
goes into circulation and functions as a hormone because
its precise level, which the kidneys maintain, controls several aspects
of calciumbone metabolism in cells all over the body. A
hormone (endocrine signaling agent) is a bloodborne compound, the
level of which signals to cells all over the body. This hormonal
1,25OHD is at a much lower level than circulating 25OHD or
D3. This very low level does not significantly affect
immune cells or the other cell types described next.
When other cell types outside the kidneys, including most or all types of
immune cells, convert 25OHD to 1,25OHD, this 1,25OHD functions as an
autocrine or
paracrine signaling agent  signaling within the cell or to nearby cells, by diffusion, respectively. In these roles, 1,25OHD is
not a hormone.
The levels of 1,25OHD produced by these many cell types is at a much
higher level than that of circulating, hormonal, 1,25OHD, so the
detection (by VDR) of this autocrine and paracrine agent 1,25OHD is not
significantly affected by hormonal 1,25OHD. While a little of
this autocrine or paracrine agent 1,25OHD may leak into circulation and
so mix with the hormonal 1,25OHD, this has no significant effect on
calciumbone metabolism since the kidneys cut back their production to
maintain the desired hormonal 1,25OHD level. More details:
https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02autocrine/#02nothorm .
(Sarcoidosis is an exception to this principle. Excessive
1,25OHD is produced in granuloma  very approximately: immune cells
clumping together and fighting among themselves. This immune
dysregulation raises the hormonal 1,25OHD level beyond the kidneys'
control. See https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01supp/#sarc
for how this is frequently thought to require reducing D3 intake, while
research shows it is best to increase D3 intake and so circulating
25OHD levels.)
 50ng/ml 125nmol/L or more circulating 25OHD is needed for proper immune function: Call to D*Action
48 MDs and researchers have, since 2008, been calling for 40 to 60ng/ml
25hydroxyvitamin D to be recognised as a healthy level https://www.grassrootshealth.net/project/ourscientists/  while by conventional standards this is 20 or 30ng/ml.
Research by Quraishi
et al. 2014 fully justified this by showing that less than
50ng/ml 25hydroxyvitamin D leads to much greater risk of infections
due to weakened innate and adaptive responses: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02autocrine/#04quraishi (Fig 1 below #fig01). 50ng/ml is 1 part in 20,000,000 by mass. 125nmol/L is the same concentration, but measured by number of molecules per litre: 1.25 x 10^{7} mols [WP].
 Immune cells need  and consume  25OHD for autocrine (inside
each cell) and paracrine (to nearby cells) signaling so each
cell can respond to its changing circumstances. Virtually
noone, including many vitamin D aware MDs, understands vitamin D based
autocrine and paracrine signaling. There being no good
explanatory article, I made a tutorial: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02autocrine/
based on diagrams from Martin Hewison (homepage) and colleagues who did
much of the research on this in the late 2000s and early 2010s.
 The immune system's need for 50ng/ml or more 25OHD is
unrelated to the one hormonal function of the three vitamin D
compounds. Some MDs think of hormonal (in the bloodstream)
1,25OHD affecting immune cells  but they are not affected by
this level. This situation is not helped by the sloppy scholarship and writing
of many vitamin D researchers, who are prone to making
statements like "vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone", as if this
gives the three compounds some muchneeded gravitas. (In the
one article is is common to find the term "vitamin D" used in confusing and contradictory ways, such as to refer to
the three compounds, specifically to D3, or as a general term
for one of the compounds when it would be much better to refer
to the compound specifically.)
This misconception about hormones makes many MDs overlywary
about proper D3 intake levels. Since I can't find an article which explains this clearly: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/02autocrine/#02nothorm
.
 A common form of these misconceptions about the vitamin D compounds is
to state that "vitamin D is an immunomodulatory
compound/hormone". While 1,25OHD does activate VDR in individual
immune cells  and so alter cell behaviour decisively  at times when
that cell's autocrine signaling system is activated, or as a result of
paracrine signaling, these are celllevel events. This
autocrine/paracrine 1,25OHD is not a hormone. Many people think
that because the immune system works better with higher intakes of D3,
resulting in higher circulating levels of 25OHD, that circulating 25OHD
acts as an immunomodulator. It does not. The immune cells work better when they get their proper 25OHD supplies.
 A related misunderstanding is to think that immune cells need high levels of
extracellular, hormonal, 1,25OHD. This leads some MDs to the clinical
mistake of using oral calcitriol (1,25OHD) to treat people whose immune
system is not working properly due to low 25OHD levels. This does
nothing to raise 25OHD levels to the 50ng/ml
all immune cells need. David E. Leaf et al. tried this with sepsis in 2014 and observed no benefits. In early September 2021 the critical care
doctors who lead the world in COVID19 early and hospital treatment: https://covid19criticalcare.com/covid19protocols/imaskplusprotocol/
recommended oral calcitriol in place of 0.125mg 5000IU D3 a day for early
treatment. I plan to write a proper account of several instances of
this increasingly common misunderstanding. The best treatment is #calcif below.
 Inadequate 25OHD doesn't just weaken direct innate and
adaptive responses, it causes dysregulated, hyperinflammatory, immune responses, which drive sepsis, severe COVID19, KD, MISC etc.
For instance, inadequate 25OHD prevents Th1 lymphocytes from switching
to their antiinflammatory shutdown program. So inadequate
25OHD is the primary direct cause of the cytokine storm
destruction of the pulmonary endothelium which triggers the
hypercoagulative blood of severe COVID19. This is elucidated in molecular detail by McGregor
et al. 2020, which I regard as the most important article of all concerning the etiology of COVID19, sepsis, Kawasaki disease, MIS etc.
This article is little known but needs to be very widely
understood. It is probably beyond the ability  or at least
patience  of most MDs to read and understand. Please see my
summary: https://aminotheory.com/cv19/icu/#2020McGregor
.
 COVID19 severity risks increase as 25hydroxyvitamin D levels fall below
~50ng/ml: VanegasCedillo et al.: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490v2
(Fig 2 below #fig02.).
 In the Cordoba calcifediol RCT, Castillo et al.'s single oral dose of 0.532mg calcifediol for hospitalised COVID19 patients reduced ICU admissions from 50% to 2% and deaths from 8% to zero. https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2020Castillo
This was around 0.007mg calcifediol / kg bodyweight.
A statistical analysis:
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638v2
found that the significance of
the death results was low, with
a p value of 0.11, but that the
significance of the ICU
admission rate reduction was
very high : p = 0.000000077.
#calcif
 A single oral dose of 0.014mg / kg bodyweight calcifediol repletes 25OHD in 4 hours:
https://vitamindstopscovid.info/04calcifediol/
and Prof. Sunil Wimalawansa MD 2021 0.014mg
calcifediol single doseSunilWimalawansa
and misactivity681529483976943616099qJ/ . All people suffering from or at risk of sepsis etc. KD, MIS,
and especially severe COVID19, need to be treated with this
ASAP.
Ideally every one of the million or so a day newly diagnosed COVID19
people who have low 25hydroxyvitamin D levels would be treated with
this immediately, and then supported with D3 indefinitely thereafter to
maintain the good levels. This would enable most of them clear
the infection quickly, so very few would need hospital care. (It
would be better if they had been supplementing D3 properly for months
before  then they would tackle the infection quickly without extra
interventions.)
This should be combined with early treatments listed above, including ivermectin: https://ivmmeta.com and https://covid19criticalcare.com/ivermectinincovid19/
. (I plan a proper page on the numerous early treatments which
should be available to all those newly diagnosed with COVID19.)
 Virtually no pediatricians know that low 25hydroxyvitamin D
causes the extreme inflammatory immune dysregulation disorders
Kawasaki disease and so Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome,
despite Stagi et al. 2015 reporting very low levels in KD
children: https://scihub.se/10.1007/s1006701529706 and https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2015Stagi
. The patients were 21 girls and 58 boys, average age 5.8 years.
Their average 25OHD levels were 9.2ng/ml, while agematched controls averaged 23.3ng/ml. The children
who developed coronary artery abnormalities and average 25OHD
levels of 4.9ng/ml.
This grave lack of knowledge means infants, children and adolescents are suffering, being harmed
and dying when they could easily be put on track for rapid recovery
with a single oral dose of 0.014mg / kg bodyweight calcifediol
#calcif. KD children are frequently obese and/or have melaninrich skin.
KD is partly seasonal  a strong clue it is driven by low 25OHD levels  and is triggered by COVID19 as well as numerous
other viral and bacterial infections.
MIS is much
the same as KD  a somewhat different set of vasculitis symptoms in
older children and adolescents. Numerous lines of evidence point
to low
25hydroxyvitamin D levels being the primary, easily correctable,
causative factor of these and the other inflammatory dysregulation
disorders mentioned here.
 The role of low 25OHD in sepsis is better known (Google
Scholar)
but it seems noone has thought to use calcifediol in these extreme
immune dysregulation emergencies. Adults and children die all
over because of
sepsis  it is one of the world's greatest killers. The Global
Burden of Disease Study people estimate that about 19.7% of all deaths
are due to sepsis.
I read
of a child surviving sepsis after both her arms and legs were
amputated. Doctors should know that a single oral dose of 0.014
mg calcifediol will have these children and adults recovering within hours. #calcif
Severe COVID19 resembles sepsis: Reyes et al. 2021: https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/early/2021/06/04/scitranslmed.abe9599 .
Han et al. 2016
gave 12.5mg 500,000IU D3 over 5 days to ventilated ICU patients
(average baseline 25OHD 20ng/ml) and reduced average length of hospital
stay from 36 days to 18. Half the dose reduced the length of stay
to an average of 25 days. Together, these results are p = 0.03.

Where's the RCT for calcifediol and sepsis an MD might ask? There is none. Likewise for KD and MIS.
These people are dying due to lack of circulating 25hydroxyvitamin D, so for
heavens' sake give them the 1mg or whatever it is they need of calcifediol (25hydroxyvitamin = 25OHD) orally, immediately.
There's no need for a 25OHD test. This single dose can't cause
toxicity. Calcifediol is a nutrient, not a hormone or drug.
The molecules in the tablet or capsule go into straight circulation
without relying on conversion in the liver as is required for D3. Then
the
person's immune system will generally work well  probably for
the first time in their lives.
Who in their right mind would
conduct an RCT about this, knowingly preventing the control group from
being treated? MDs who pride themselves in not changing their
clinical decisions without one or more large, multicentre RCTs, in this
instance, are harming and
killing people by withholding this simple, safe treatment and/or by
pressuring other MDs into conducting the placebocontrolled RCTs which
will supposedly change their mind. It is not a virtue to be so resistant to important, new, information. This is chemically, biologically and ethically really straightforward.
 My best effort at deriving D3 intakes as a ratio of
bodyweight, with higher ratios for people suffering from
obesity, from the work of Ekwaru et al. 2014 https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111265 as cited in my page https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01supp/aratios/
, This page also cites two other ratiobased systems from Iranian MDs in Dubai
and from Grassroots Health. Fig 4 #fig04.
One of the failings of the vitamin D research literature is that there
is no peerreviewed review article making the necessarily different
bodyweight ratio D3 supplemental intake recommendations for normal and
overweight people (one ratio or set of lower and upper ratios) with a
second ratio or pair of ratios for people suffering from obesity.
The excess adipocytes of obesity absorb D3 and 25OHD without returning
much of it to circulation. Obesity is a serious comorbid
condition for COVID19  ectopic adipocytes in the alveolar tissue and
other locations, with ACE2 receptors, generating proinflammatory
cytokines: https://aminotheory.com/cv19/obesity/ .
#seas
 The seasonality of sepsis (Google Scholar) and KD (Google Scholar)
is primarily due to seasonal changes in 25OHD levels. It is also
due to seasonal changes in viral and other pathogens causing serious
disease, which is primarily due to 25OHD levels as well.
The seasonality of COVID19 exhibits a similar pattern, but is overlaid
by emerging variants, the impacts of lockdowns etc.
The seasonality of infection by the viral pathogens is also affected by
seasonal changes in 25OHD, but two other factors may play significant
roles: Firstly, cold temperatures outside mean hot, dry air recirculating in
buildings and vehicles, which increases viral transmission by allowing
droplets to dry into bare viruses which remain airborne for
hours. Secondly, summer high elevation sunlight inactivates
viruses in aerosols and fomites, in the middle of the day, but this is
only outdoors, and most transmission occurs in vehicles or buildings.
The same is true of COVID19 seasonality (Fig 5 #fig05),
at least at high latitudes, or near the equator due to monsoonal cloud
blocking direct highelevation sunlight for months: the primary
seasonal modulator of disease severity is 25OHD levels. The primary
modulator of SARSCoV2 transmission is 25OHD levels, by affecting
infection severity and so the total number of viruses shed per infected
person. Variations in 25OHD levels also modulate the percentage
of people who become infected due to any given viral insult, but this is
probably a small consideration in the total transmission process
compared to summerautumn high vitamin D levels greatly reducing the
average total number of viruses shed by each infected person.
In the UK, in late 2020, if new variants had not arrived, and if
vitamin D levels in the population has been maintained at or above
their August levels, the COVID19 pandemic would have
ended. However, low winter vitamin D levels fired up the
transmission again, and then the alpha variant outperformed the
original variants, only to be outperformed by delta by the middle
(summer) of 2021.
 If everyone, or most people, had at least 50ng/ml 125nmol/L 25hydroxyvitamin D, then (assuming SARSCoV2 variants do not become vastly more effective than they are today, which is not assured https://vitamindstopscovid.info/#zahradnik) even without immunity from prior infection or from vaccination,
most people will have a relatively short, and possibly asymptomatic
infection, since their innate and adaptive immune systems will be
working really well. Furthermore, if the infection persists, they
are unlikely to progress to severe COVID19, because their Th1
lymphocytes and other regulatory cells will, in general, properly
regulate inflammatory responses.
Nonetheless, those with obesity, advanced years and other comorbidities
would, on average, benefit from vaccination even if they were fully
vitamin D replete and had access to a full range of early
treatments.
 So, there's a good chance that populationwide vitamin D repletion to 50ng/ml 25OHD
would suppress COVID19 transmission well below the rate required for
widespread infection  and likewise greatly reduce the chance of severe
symptoms for the few who are infected. The same is true of
influenza. There would be little or no influenza all year
round. There would be no need for influenza vaccines.
Hopefully there would be no need for COVID19 vaccines, lockdowns,
social distancing or masks.
In August 2021, it was reliably established that the mRNA and
adenovirus vector COVID19 vaccines used in developed countries are
incapable (at least in the current situation of no early treatment and
generally terribly low 25OHD) of attaining herd immunity, no matter how
many people are vaccinated. See the transcript of Prof. Sir
Andrew Pollard's statement on this at: https://nutritionmatters.substack.com/p/vitamindandearlytreatmentvs .
 Now you know the above, you can see that it is unethical madness
on a global scale to tackle COVID19, or influenza, with just vaccines
and/or lockdowns, while knowingly leaving the great majority of the
population with seriously dysfunctional immune responses, due to the
lack of circulating 25OHD.
Good 25OHD levels also produce better immune responses from
vaccination, and presumably reduce the chance of adverse
reactions which involve overlyinflammatory responses.
Every one of these items is of first order importance. They
concern the necessary conditions for proper operation of the immune
system.
The reasons why most MDs have been so ignorant about these
matters, and why many still actively resist learning new
information such as this which they really need to know, is a vast and perplexing
topic for another day. Some MDs are up to speed and have been trying to raise awareness about vitamin D for years.
#02graphs
Graphs and further links
Fig 1 Adapted directly (vector graphics, not me tracing curves) from:
Further discussion:
Fig 2 COVID19 severity risks by 25hydroxyvitamin D levels. See
https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#vc for links to the research articles.
Fig 3 The top graph is adapted from:
Daily oral dosing of vitamin D3 using
5000 TO 50,000 international units a day in longterm
hospitalized patients: Insights from a seven year experience
Patrick J McCullough, Douglas S Lehrer and Jeffrey Amend.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 20190104
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960076018306228
(Paywalled.)
https://scihub.se/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.010
The bottom graph shows the desired rise in 25OHD levels, which takes
about 3 months with daily 0.125mg 5000IU D3, being achieved in
4 hours with a single oral dose of 0.532mg calcifediol in healthy, presumably nonobese, adults. This is from the
Feas Farma patent
for the same capsules as used by Castillo et al. 2020, who used the
same single dose on day 1, followed by half this on days 3, 7, 14 etc.
Fig 4 Adapted from
Ekwaru et al. 2014: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01supp/aratios/
Fig 5 Seasonality of COVID19
in the summer of 2020.
https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/healthcare Historical
25OHD levels from BioBank:
https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2020UKvitDBAME.
Fig 6 In the UK  where
extraordinary efforts are made to sequence PCRpositive test swabs 
the mid2020 variants were overtaken by Alpha B.1.1.7 in December and
Delta, with a halving time of 4 weeks at the end of May 2021, is being
rapidly replaced by Delta B.1.617.2, doubling every 10 days, Fig 4b in
Vöhringer et al.
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.05.22.21257633v2 .
WHO's variant naming scheme:
https://www.who.int/en/activities/trackingSARSCoV2variants/
1,500+ lineages, some of which are considered variants, are listed below.
Fig 7 The halving prevalence of
Alpha and the rapid doubling
Delta rates are clearer in the work of Alex Selby:
http://sonorouschocolate.com/covid19/index.php?title=Growth_in_Variant_of_Concern#Graphical_output
Delta is about 2.6 times as likely as Alpha to cause hospitalisation
within 14 days of diagnosis, according to page 46 of bulletin 14
(20210603) at:
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/investigationofnovelsarscov2variantvariantofconcern20201201
Bulletin 15 attributes Delta's success partly to escaping
vaccineinduced and infectionacquired immunity, but mainly to superior
viral performance.
Average summer UK 25OHD levels (
Fig 5 #fig05) for whites are barely half of the
50ng/ml 125nmol/L everyone needs for their immune systems to work
properly. People with melaninrich skin have much lower levels
and less of a boost in summer.
Melaninrich sin and/or full body clothing or at least sunavoidant
lifestyles, in the absence of proper D3 supplementation, result in very
low 25hydroxyvitamin D levels. This is disastrously so for
Muslim women in general, especially in countries far from the equator
such as the UK. Even in sunny Israel, most Muslim (Arabic
ancestry) women have extremely low 25hydroxyvitamin D levels. The
median is probably
12ng/ml.
Fig 8 Population distributions
of different 25hydroxyvitamin D levels for men and women in Israel,
separated according to Arabic ancestry, ultraorthodox Jewish faith and
the rest of the population who are in neither of these groups.
These are yearround average figures. Winter levels would be
lower, so the overall curves traced by the peaks of each bar would be
further to the left. The data represented by these graphs is of
the whole population, without regard to whether or not each person
contracted COVID19. The higher bar on the far left of the Arabic
women's set is higher than the one to the right, indicating that some
women's levels fall into a range below the lower measurement limit, which is
4ng/ml 10nmol/L. So their 25hydroxyvitamin D levels are
3ng/ml or so, 1/15th
or less of what they need to be healthy.
Some
of these women are giving birth and breastfeeding babies, who will
therefore be building their bodies and brains with a terrible vitamin D
deficiency  which can easily be fixed with D3 supplements, or more
rapidly with calcifediol. Other graphs from this article, and a link to it:
https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#2020Israel .
Tel Aviv is 32° from the equator. Here are the latitudes of some
other major cities: Houston 30°, Sydney 34°, Melbourne 37°, New
York 41°, Paris 49°, London 51° and Edinburgh 56°.
Even the main Israeli population, which is fairskinned and not at all
sunavoidant, has median, year round, 25hydroxyvitamin D levels of
only
23ng/ml or so, less than half of the
50ng/ml
they need for their immune systems to work properly. This is with
some of them taking vitamin D supplements, generally at too low a level
to reach
50ng/ml.
Many MDs, not knowing about the Quraishi et al. 2014 research, or the 2008
Call to D*Action
would be only somewhat concerned about the general Israeli 25hydroxyvitamin D levels shown above, because they believe that
20ng/ml or perhaps
30ng/ml is the threshold of repletion. However, the Quraishi et al. research shows the real level of repletion is at least
50ng/ml.
For 70kg adults
0.125mg 5000IU D3
per day will raise average levels to
50ng/ml or more (after a few
months).
https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01supp/ This is a gram every 22 years and D3 costs USD$2.50 a
gram exfactory.
It is unknown to what degree Delta or future variants would be
suppressed (in terms of transmission and severity) if the great
majority of people had at last 50ng/ml 25OHD. However, it
is obviously crazy to have the whole world tackling these variants when
people's 25OHD levels are as low as they are today. The only
solution is supplementation. Sunshine is frequently not available, and
causes DNA damage. People with melaninrich skin need a lot of
highelevation direct sunshine to make enough D3. Food
fortification is a scattergun approach which can never attain the
required 25OHD levels.
With luck, this populationscale repletion will suppress current and
future SARSCoV2 variants to the point of transmission rates too low
to be a concern for most people, and with severe outcomes in only a few
people.
Prior immunity is
not needed with good vitamin D levels, since most people's immune
systems will deal with whatever variant they face, rapidly and
effectively  especially if assisted by ivermectin and other early
treatments. Those without comorbidities who are infected will
rarely suffer severe symptoms and will develop lasting, broad immunity
(compared to that conferred by current vaccines).
Fig 9 Low 25OHD levels for
white UK people and even lower levels for those with melanin rich
skin. Data from Sutherland et al. 2020:
https://scihub.se/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.11.019 .
#03if
If MDs had, collectively, been doing their job properly with regards to vitamin D for the last decade or so . . .
MDs are supposed to be the ultimate
authority on all matters concerning disease prevention and
treatment. (MDs insist they are this and that noone else is qualified to be this.) While
the task is Herculean, it is ultimately the responsibility of MDs to
achieve this, one way or another, including by selecting and supporting
specialists to advise on particular aspects of health which, naturally,
most MDs lack the time and expertise to fully investigate.
This works fine in many aspects of
medicine, but for a variety of reasons  all of them bad  MDs have
been extraordinarily resistant to learning the information listed
above. The D*Action MDs' and researchers' 40 to 60ng/ml
recommendation should have been respected in 2008 and MDs should have
worked to get everyone so supplement D3 to attain this. The Quraishi et
al. 2014 graph should have been stuck on the wall of every doctor's
waiting room in the world. Sepsis, Kawasaki disease, MIS,
severe influenza, pneumonia and ARDS should all have been treated
with calcifediol.
If MDs, collectively, had been doing their job with vitamin D as
well as they do many other aspects of their work then there would
be no COVID19 pandemic:
They would have
rejected the lousy 20ng/ml threshold of sufficiency advised by the
Institute of Medicine in 2010  which was explicitly only for the
kidneys' needs for producing a very low level of hormonal 1,25OHD 
despite of the advice of the D*Action team at Grassroots Health and
others who wanted 40ng/ml to 60ng/ml to be the threshold, to enable the immune
system to work properly.
They would have spotted the IOM's statistical blunder which set
the D3 RDA at just 0.015mg 600IU/day, for the very low 20ng/ml target. It
took a few years for vitamin D researchers to spot this and
estimate the RDA (for 97.5% of adults to attain this, is close
to 0.175mg 7000IU/day. (Veuglers & Ekwaru 2014 linked to
from https://vitamindstopscovid.info/01supp/#iom
.)
They would have rejected the idea of an RDA due to the great
variation in bodyweights for "adults", even in one country, let
alone in all countries [WP], and instead devised recommended daily
intakes of D3, as a ratio of bodyweight, so all people, from
newborns (except those breastfed by replete moms) to the aged
could, in general, attain safe > 50ng/ml 25OHD
levels, without need for costly testing and medical advice and
while generally avoiding the direct UVB light which creates D3
in the skin, but which also damages DNA and so greatly raises
the risk of skin cancer.
By 2020, most people could have been vitamin D replete. It
would take about a tonne of D3 a day for all of humanity, at a
total exfactory cost of around USD$1B a year  13 US cents per
person per year, plus the cost of making and distributing
suitable weekly tablets or capsules.
Then there would be almost no influenza, sepsis, Kawasaki
disease or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome. Autoimmune and
inflammatory diseases would be significantly reduced  but see https://aminotheory.com/cv19/#helminthsgone
for the other cause of these overlyaggressive immune responses,
which is harder to fix and which is the subject of promising
research. I am working on another page here: https://vitamindstopscovid.info/06adv/about
the Coimbra and similar protocols for higher than normal 25OHD
levels to suppress MS, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, IBD, Crohn's
disease etc.  and the search for hypotheses which explain the
underlying mechanisms. I will soon add a discussion of research
which shows that helminth infection reduces the risk of severe COVID19
by about 75%: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS25895370(21)003345/ .
SARSCoV2 would not have got very far, since
most infected people would have minimal or no symptoms, and the
total amount of virus shed, per such infected person, on
average, would be too low, in general, to infect more than one
person.
If MDs had been doing their job properly, in respect of ensuring
everyone's immune system has the nutrients it needs for proper
operation, they would have revised or replaced advisory
bodies to get rid of bigpharma influence and those who think they
have nothing to learn. Then, in 2020 and following years, there would be no COVID19 pandemic,
or the multiple horrors it has spawned: social and economic
devastation, government control, loss of freedom, inability to
travel etc.
So pardon me if I get frustrated with
MDs or any other professionals or socalled experts who resist or
disparage attempts to bring them up to speed on vitamin D and the
immune system.
Their efforts at avoiding learning new information  and the general
problem of most MDs being unable to imagine how important vitamin D is
to the immune system  has much the same practical effects as those who
explicitly refuse to treat COVID19 patients: condemning millions of
people to suffering, harm and perhaps death, almost all of which could
have been avoided with longerterm D3 supplementation, or in the
absence of this, with emergency repletion with 0.014mg/kg bodyweight
calcifediol.
#04cortico
Prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone
antiinflammation drugs raise risk of possibly deadly fungal infections
 and would be largely or completely unnecessary if 25hydroxyvitamin D
levels were repleted in 4 hours with a small, single, oral, dose of
calcifediol
The term
corticosteroids [
WP]
is frequently used to refer to these drugs collectively. A subset
of the corticosteroid compounds is the glucocorticoids [
WP]
group, which includes these four drugs. These four (mainly
methylprednisone and dexamethasone) are used, orally, to suppress the extreme
dysregulated inflammatory responses in severe COVID19, sepsis etc.:
 Prednisone [WP], converted by the liver into prednisolone.
 Prednisolone [WP].
 Methylprednisolone [WP].
 Dexamethasone [WP].
These drugs mimic the effects of the hormone cortisol (AKA
hydrocortisone) in reducing inflammatory responses.
They also
reduce innate and adaptive immune responses. They should not be
used unless dysregulated inflammatory responses emerge. If they
are used in the early stages of COVID19, the reduction in innate and
adaptive responses causes a stronger infection.
These are heavyduty drugs, not given lightly. One of their illeffects, in high doses, is psychosis:
PMC6793974 . Another is raised glucose levels in the bloodstream.
In June and July 2021, mainstream media reported on a wave of quite
likely deadly black fungus infections occurring in Indian COVID19
patients who suffered from diabetes and who were treated with large
doses of corticosteroids. In May 2021
Scientific American reported that 12,000 cases had been detected in recent months. (
BBC too: mucormycosis.) It is common in these cases for an infected eye to be removed in an effort to save the patient's life.
White fungus (aspergillosis,
BBC and
The Guardian) is also a problem  including in many countries other than India:
Chong and Neu report a
13.5% incidence of this "white fungus" infection in hospitalised COVID19 patients, with a
48.4% mortality rate.
Even if the reality was a fraction as bad this use of glucocorticoids
is causing a lot of suffering, harm and death.
I propose an important principle:
Whenever
doctors consider using corticosteroid / glucocorticoid drugs to
suppress inflammation, they should first consider that this
dysregulated immune response could better be suppressed by raising
their patient's circulating 25hydroxyvitamin D level safely above
50ng/ml 125nmol/L with a single, small, oral dose of calcifediol. #calcif
This would boost innate and adaptive immune responses (which the above
drugs suppress) and reduce excessive inflammation by removing its
primary or sole cause (other than the lack of helminths, which we
currently cannot do much about at all  especially in a clinical
emergency)  circulating 25hydroxyvitamin D levels well below 50ng/ml.
The same principle applies to vets, who are typically treating
nonhuman animals, which for good reason, have no helminthic infections.
#05variants
Know the enemy: 1500+ SARSCoV2 lineages, some regarded as variants of interest or concern, in 17 months
A full list of 1,535 (20210609) SARSCoV2 variants, or rather
lineages
is:
(Previously, where I got the above data: https://covlineages.org/lineage_description_list.html . This page on constellations of mutations is also interesting: https://covlineages.org/constellations.html .)
Many variants are functionally the same as others, since a genetic change
may not change the protein, and because some protein changes do
not alter the functionality of the virus. Those in bold are the
10 identified by the WHO as variants of interest or concern on 20210609. Those in grey bold were no longer on the WHO list on 20210719, and those in red bold were on the list on this date, but not earlier.
A
A.1 A.2 A.2.1 A.2.2 A.2.3 A.2.4 A.2.5
A.2.5.1 A.2.5.2 A.3 A.4
A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8 A.9 A.10
A.11 A.12 A.13 A.14 A.15 A.16
A.17 A.18 A.19 A.20 A.21 A.22
A.23 A.23.1 A.24 A.25 A.26 A.27
A.28 A.29 AA.1 AA.2 AA.3 AA.4
AA.5 AA.6 AA.7 AA.8 AB.1 AC.1
AD.1 AD.2 AD.2.1 AE.1 AE.2 AE.3
AE.4 AE.5 AE.6 AE.7 AE.8 AF.1
AG.1 AH.1 AH.2 AH.3 AJ.1 AK.1
AK.2 AL.1 AM.1 AM.2 AM.3 AM.4
AN.1 AP.1 AQ.1 AQ.2 AS.1 AS.2
AT.1 AU.1 AU.2 AU.3 AV.1
B B.1 B.1.1 B.1.1.1
B.1.1.2 B.1.1.3 B.1.1.4 B.1.1.5 B.1.1.6 B.1.1.7 Alpha B.1.1.8
B.1.1.10 B.1.1.12 B.1.1.13 B.1.1.14 B.1.1.15 B.1.1.16
B.1.1.17 B.1.1.20 B.1.1.25 B.1.1.26 B.1.1.27 B.1.1.28
B.1.1.29 B.1.1.30 B.1.1.31 B.1.1.32 B.1.1.33 B.1.1.34
B.1.1.35 B.1.1.36 B.1.1.37 B.1.1.38 B.1.1.39 B.1.1.40
B.1.1.41 B.1.1.43 B.1.1.44 B.1.1.45 B.1.1.46 B.1.1.47
B.1.1.48 B.1.1.49 B.1.1.50 B.1.1.51 B.1.1.52 B.1.1.53
B.1.1.54 B.1.1.55 B.1.1.56 B.1.1.57 B.1.1.58 B.1.1.59
B.1.1.60 B.1.1.61 B.1.1.62 B.1.1.63 B.1.1.64 B.1.1.65
B.1.1.66 B.1.1.67 B.1.1.70 B.1.1.71 B.1.1.72 B.1.1.73
B.1.1.74 B.1.1.75 B.1.1.76 B.1.1.77 B.1.1.78 B.1.1.79
B.1.1.80 B.1.1.81 B.1.1.82 B.1.1.83 B.1.1.84 B.1.1.85
B.1.1.86 B.1.1.87 B.1.1.88 B.1.1.89 B.1.1.90 B.1.1.91
B.1.1.92 B.1.1.93 B.1.1.94 B.1.1.95 B.1.1.96 B.1.1.97
B.1.1.98 B.1.1.99 B.1.1.100 B.1.1.101 B.1.1.102
B.1.1.103 B.1.1.104 B.1.1.105 B.1.1.106 B.1.1.107
B.1.1.108 B.1.1.109 B.1.1.110 B.1.1.111 B.1.1.112
B.1.1.113 B.1.1.114 B.1.1.115 B.1.1.116 B.1.1.117
B.1.1.118 B.1.1.119 B.1.1.120 B.1.1.121 B.1.1.122
B.1.1.123 B.1.1.124 B.1.1.125 B.1.1.126 B.1.1.127
B.1.1.128 B.1.1.129 B.1.1.130 B.1.1.131 B.1.1.132
B.1.1.133 B.1.1.134 B.1.1.135 B.1.1.136 B.1.1.137
B.1.1.138 B.1.1.139 B.1.1.140 B.1.1.141 B.1.1.142
B.1.1.143 B.1.1.144 B.1.1.145 B.1.1.146 B.1.1.147
B.1.1.148 B.1.1.149 B.1.1.150 B.1.1.151 B.1.1.152
B.1.1.153 B.1.1.154 B.1.1.155 B.1.1.156 B.1.1.157
B.1.1.158 B.1.1.159 B.1.1.160 B.1.1.161 B.1.1.162
B.1.1.163 B.1.1.164 B.1.1.165 B.1.1.166 B.1.1.167
B.1.1.168 B.1.1.169 B.1.1.170 B.1.1.171 B.1.1.172
B.1.1.173 B.1.1.174 B.1.1.175 B.1.1.176 B.1.1.177
B.1.1.178 B.1.1.179 B.1.1.180 B.1.1.181 B.1.1.182
B.1.1.183 B.1.1.184 B.1.1.185 B.1.1.186 B.1.1.187
B.1.1.189 B.1.1.190 B.1.1.191 B.1.1.192 B.1.1.193
B.1.1.194 B.1.1.195 B.1.1.196 B.1.1.197 B.1.1.198
B.1.1.199 B.1.1.200 B.1.1.201 B.1.1.202 B.1.1.203
B.1.1.204 B.1.1.205 B.1.1.206 B.1.1.207 B.1.1.208
B.1.1.209 B.1.1.210 B.1.1.211 B.1.1.212 B.1.1.213
B.1.1.214 B.1.1.215 B.1.1.216 B.1.1.217 B.1.1.218
B.1.1.219 B.1.1.220 B.1.1.221 B.1.1.222 B.1.1.223
B.1.1.224 B.1.1.225 B.1.1.226 B.1.1.227 B.1.1.231
B.1.1.232 B.1.1.233 B.1.1.234 B.1.1.235 B.1.1.236
B.1.1.237 B.1.1.238 B.1.1.239 B.1.1.240 B.1.1.241
B.1.1.242 B.1.1.243 B.1.1.244 B.1.1.245 B.1.1.246
B.1.1.247 B.1.1.248 B.1.1.249 B.1.1.250 B.1.1.251
B.1.1.252 B.1.1.253 B.1.1.254 B.1.1.255 B.1.1.256
B.1.1.257 B.1.1.258 B.1.1.259 B.1.1.260 B.1.1.261
B.1.1.262 B.1.1.263 B.1.1.264 B.1.1.265 B.1.1.266
B.1.1.267 B.1.1.268 B.1.1.269 B.1.1.270 B.1.1.271
B.1.1.272 B.1.1.273 B.1.1.274 B.1.1.275 B.1.1.276
B.1.1.277 B.1.1.278 B.1.1.279 B.1.1.280 B.1.1.281
B.1.1.282 B.1.1.283 B.1.1.284 B.1.1.285 B.1.1.286
B.1.1.287 B.1.1.288 B.1.1.289 B.1.1.290 B.1.1.291
B.1.1.292 B.1.1.293 B.1.1.294 B.1.1.295 B.1.1.296
B.1.1.297 B.1.1.298 B.1.1.299 B.1.1.300 B.1.1.301
B.1.1.302 B.1.1.303 B.1.1.304 B.1.1.305 B.1.1.306
B.1.1.307 B.1.1.308 B.1.1.309 B.1.1.310 B.1.1.311
B.1.1.312 B.1.1.313 B.1.1.314 B.1.1.315 B.1.1.316
B.1.1.317 B.1.1.318 B.1.1.319 B.1.1.320 B.1.1.322
B.1.1.323 B.1.1.324 B.1.1.325 B.1.1.326 B.1.1.327
B.1.1.328 B.1.1.329 B.1.1.330 B.1.1.331 B.1.1.332
B.1.1.333 B.1.1.334 B.1.1.335 B.1.1.336 B.1.1.337
B.1.1.338 B.1.1.339 B.1.1.340 B.1.1.341 B.1.1.342
B.1.1.343 B.1.1.344 B.1.1.345 B.1.1.346 B.1.1.347
B.1.1.348 B.1.1.349 B.1.1.350 B.1.1.351 B.1.1.352
B.1.1.353 B.1.1.354 B.1.1.355 B.1.1.356 B.1.1.357
B.1.1.358 B.1.1.359 B.1.1.360 B.1.1.361 B.1.1.362
B.1.1.363 B.1.1.364 B.1.1.365 B.1.1.366 B.1.1.367
B.1.1.368 B.1.1.369 B.1.1.370 B.1.1.371 B.1.1.372
B.1.1.373 B.1.1.374 B.1.1.375 B.1.1.376 B.1.1.377
B.1.1.378 B.1.1.379 B.1.1.380 B.1.1.381 B.1.1.382
B.1.1.383 B.1.1.384 B.1.1.385 B.1.1.386 B.1.1.387
B.1.1.388 B.1.1.389 B.1.1.391 B.1.1.392 B.1.1.393
B.1.1.394 B.1.1.395 B.1.1.396 B.1.1.397 B.1.1.398
B.1.1.399 B.1.1.400 B.1.1.401 B.1.1.402 B.1.1.403
B.1.1.404 B.1.1.405 B.1.1.406 B.1.1.407 B.1.1.408
B.1.1.409 B.1.1.410 B.1.1.411 B.1.1.412 B.1.1.413
B.1.1.414 B.1.1.415 B.1.1.416 B.1.1.417 B.1.1.418
B.1.1.419 B.1.1.420 B.1.1.421 B.1.1.422 B.1.1.423
B.1.1.424 B.1.1.425 B.1.1.426 B.1.1.427 B.1.1.428
B.1.1.429 B.1.1.430 B.1.1.431 B.1.1.432 B.1.1.433
B.1.1.434 B.1.1.435 B.1.1.436 B.1.1.437 B.1.1.438
B.1.1.439 B.1.1.440 B.1.1.441 B.1.1.442 B.1.1.444
B.1.1.445 B.1.1.446 B.1.1.447 B.1.1.448 B.1.1.449
B.1.1.450 B.1.1.451 B.1.1.452 B.1.1.453 B.1.1.456
B.1.1.458 B.1.1.459 B.1.1.461 B.1.1.462 B.1.1.463
B.1.1.464 B.1.1.465 B.1.1.466 B.1.1.467 B.1.1.480
B.1.1.481 B.1.1.482 B.1.1.483 B.1.1.484 B.1.1.485
B.1.1.486 B.1.1.487 B.1.1.500 B.1.1.506 B.1.1.507
B.1.1.512 B.1.1.513 B.1.1.514 B.1.1.515 B.1.1.516
B.1.1.517 B.1.1.518 B.1.1.519 B.1.1.521 B.1.1.522
B.1.1.523 B.1.2 B.1.3 B.1.3.1 B.1.3.2 B.1.3.3 B.1.3.4
B.1.5 B.1.5.2 B.1.5.5 B.1.5.6 B.1.5.11 B.1.5.12
B.1.5.13 B.1.5.15 B.1.5.16 B.1.5.17 B.1.5.18 B.1.5.19
B.1.5.21 B.1.5.25 B.1.5.26 B.1.5.27 B.1.5.28 B.1.5.29
B.1.5.30 B.1.5.31 B.1.5.32 B.1.5.33 B.1.5.34 B.1.5.35
B.1.5.36 B.1.6 B.1.8 B.1.8.2 B.1.9 B.1.9.1 B.1.9.2
B.1.9.3 B.1.9.4 B.1.9.5 B.1.9.6 B.1.11 B.1.12 B.1.13
B.1.14 B.1.19 B.1.21 B.1.22 B.1.22.1 B.1.23 B.1.25
B.1.26 B.1.34 B.1.35 B.1.36 B.1.36.1 B.1.36.2 B.1.36.3
B.1.36.4 B.1.36.5 B.1.36.6 B.1.36.7 B.1.36.8 B.1.36.9
B.1.36.10 B.1.36.11 B.1.36.12 B.1.36.13 B.1.36.14
B.1.36.15 B.1.36.16 B.1.36.17 B.1.36.17.1 B.1.36.18
B.1.36.19 B.1.36.20 B.1.36.21 B.1.36.23 B.1.36.24
B.1.36.25 B.1.36.26 B.1.36.27 B.1.36.28 B.1.36.29
B.1.36.31 B.1.36.33 B.1.36.34 B.1.36.35 B.1.36.36
B.1.36.37 B.1.36.38 B.1.36.39 B.1.37 B.1.38 B.1.39
B.1.40 B.1.44 B.1.67 B.1.69 B.1.70 B.1.74 B.1.75
B.1.76 B.1.77 B.1.78 B.1.79 B.1.80 B.1.81 B.1.82
B.1.83 B.1.84 B.1.88 B.1.89 B.1.90 B.1.91 B.1.93
B.1.94 B.1.95 B.1.96 B.1.97 B.1.98 B.1.102 B.1.103
B.1.104 B.1.105 B.1.106 B.1.107 B.1.108 B.1.109 B.1.110
B.1.110.1 B.1.110.2 B.1.110.3 B.1.111 B.1.112 B.1.113
B.1.114 B.1.115 B.1.116 B.1.117 B.1.118 B.1.119 B.1.120
B.1.124 B.1.126 B.1.127 B.1.128 B.1.131 B.1.133 B.1.134
B.1.135 B.1.136 B.1.137 B.1.138 B.1.139 B.1.140 B.1.141
B.1.142 B.1.143 B.1.144 B.1.145 B.1.146 B.1.147 B.1.149
B.1.150 B.1.151 B.1.152 B.1.153 B.1.154 B.1.156 B.1.157
B.1.158 B.1.159 B.1.160 B.1.160.1 B.1.160.2 B.1.160.3
B.1.160.4 B.1.160.5 B.1.160.6 B.1.160.7 B.1.160.8
B.1.160.9 B.1.160.10 B.1.160.11 B.1.160.12 B.1.160.13
B.1.160.14 B.1.160.15 B.1.160.16 B.1.160.17 B.1.160.18
B.1.160.19 B.1.160.20 B.1.160.21 B.1.160.22 B.1.160.23
B.1.160.24 B.1.160.25 B.1.160.26 B.1.160.27 B.1.160.28
B.1.160.29 B.1.160.30 B.1.160.31 B.1.160.32 B.1.160.33
B.1.161 B.1.162 B.1.163 B.1.164 B.1.165 B.1.166 B.1.167
B.1.168 B.1.169 B.1.170 B.1.173 B.1.177 B.1.177.1
B.1.177.2 B.1.177.3 B.1.177.4 B.1.177.5 B.1.177.6
B.1.177.7 B.1.177.8 B.1.177.9 B.1.177.10 B.1.177.11
B.1.177.12 B.1.177.13 B.1.177.14 B.1.177.15 B.1.177.16
B.1.177.17 B.1.177.18 B.1.177.19 B.1.177.20 B.1.177.21
B.1.177.22 B.1.177.23 B.1.177.24 B.1.177.25 B.1.177.26
B.1.177.27 B.1.177.28 B.1.177.29 B.1.177.30 B.1.177.31
B.1.177.32 B.1.177.33 B.1.177.34 B.1.177.35 B.1.177.36
B.1.177.37 B.1.177.38 B.1.177.39 B.1.177.40 B.1.177.41
B.1.177.42 B.1.177.43 B.1.177.44 B.1.177.45 B.1.177.46
B.1.177.47 B.1.177.48 B.1.177.49 B.1.177.50 B.1.177.51
B.1.177.52 B.1.177.53 B.1.177.54 B.1.177.55 B.1.177.56
B.1.177.57 B.1.177.58 B.1.177.59 B.1.177.60 B.1.177.61
B.1.177.62 B.1.177.63 B.1.177.64 B.1.177.65 B.1.177.66
B.1.177.67 B.1.177.68 B.1.177.69 B.1.177.70 B.1.177.71
B.1.177.72 B.1.177.73 B.1.177.74 B.1.177.75 B.1.177.76
B.1.177.77 B.1.177.78 B.1.177.79 B.1.177.80 B.1.177.81
B.1.177.82 B.1.177.83 B.1.177.84 B.1.177.85 B.1.177.86
B.1.177.87 B.1.177.88 B.1.177.89 B.1.178 B.1.179 B.1.180
B.1.181 B.1.182 B.1.183 B.1.184 B.1.185 B.1.186 B.1.187
B.1.188 B.1.189 B.1.190 B.1.191 B.1.192 B.1.193 B.1.194
B.1.195 B.1.196 B.1.197 B.1.198 B.1.199 B.1.200 B.1.201
B.1.202 B.1.203 B.1.204 B.1.205 B.1.206 B.1.207 B.1.208
B.1.209 B.1.210 B.1.211 B.1.212 B.1.213 B.1.214
B.1.214.1 B.1.214.2 B.1.214.3 B.1.214.4 B.1.215 B.1.216
B.1.217 B.1.218 B.1.219 B.1.220 B.1.221 B.1.221.1
B.1.221.2 B.1.221.3 B.1.221.4 B.1.222 B.1.223 B.1.224
B.1.225 B.1.226 B.1.227 B.1.228 B.1.229 B.1.230 B.1.232
B.1.233 B.1.234 B.1.235 B.1.236 B.1.237 B.1.238 B.1.239
B.1.240 B.1.240.1 B.1.240.2 B.1.241 B.1.242 B.1.243
B.1.243.1 B.1.244 B.1.245 B.1.246 B.1.247 B.1.248
B.1.249 B.1.250 B.1.251 B.1.252 B.1.253 B.1.254 B.1.255
B.1.256 B.1.257 B.1.258 B.1.258.1 B.1.258.2 B.1.258.3
B.1.258.4 B.1.258.5 B.1.258.6 B.1.258.7 B.1.258.8
B.1.258.9 B.1.258.10 B.1.258.11 B.1.258.12 B.1.258.13
B.1.258.14 B.1.258.15 B.1.258.16 B.1.258.17 B.1.258.18
B.1.258.19 B.1.258.20 B.1.258.21 B.1.258.22 B.1.258.23
B.1.258.24 B.1.259 B.1.260 B.1.261 B.1.262 B.1.263
B.1.264 B.1.264.1 B.1.265 B.1.266 B.1.267 B.1.268
B.1.269 B.1.270 B.1.271 B.1.272 B.1.273 B.1.274 B.1.275
B.1.276 B.1.277 B.1.278 B.1.279 B.1.280 B.1.281 B.1.282
B.1.283 B.1.284 B.1.285 B.1.286 B.1.287 B.1.288 B.1.289
B.1.290 B.1.291 B.1.292 B.1.293 B.1.294 B.1.295 B.1.296
B.1.297 B.1.297.1 B.1.298 B.1.299 B.1.300 B.1.301
B.1.302 B.1.303 B.1.304 B.1.305 B.1.306 B.1.307 B.1.308
B.1.309 B.1.310 B.1.311 B.1.312 B.1.313 B.1.314 B.1.315
B.1.316 B.1.317 B.1.318 B.1.319 B.1.320 B.1.321 B.1.322
B.1.323 B.1.324 B.1.325 B.1.326 B.1.327 B.1.328 B.1.329
B.1.330 B.1.331 B.1.332 B.1.333 B.1.333.1 B.1.334
B.1.335 B.1.336 B.1.337 B.1.338 B.1.339 B.1.340 B.1.341
B.1.342 B.1.343 B.1.344 B.1.345 B.1.346 B.1.347 B.1.348
B.1.349 B.1.350 B.1.350.1 B.1.351
Beta B.1.351.1 B.1.351.2 B.1.351.3 B.1.352
B.1.353 B.1.355 B.1.356 B.1.357 B.1.358 B.1.359 B.1.360
B.1.361 B.1.362 B.1.362.1 B.1.362.2 B.1.363 B.1.364
B.1.365 B.1.366 B.1.367 B.1.368 B.1.369 B.1.369.1
B.1.370 B.1.371 B.1.372 B.1.373 B.1.374 B.1.374.1
B.1.375 B.1.376 B.1.377 B.1.378 B.1.379 B.1.380 B.1.381
B.1.382 B.1.383 B.1.384 B.1.385 B.1.386 B.1.387 B.1.388
B.1.389 B.1.390 B.1.391 B.1.392 B.1.393 B.1.394 B.1.395
B.1.396 B.1.397 B.1.398 B.1.399 B.1.400 B.1.401 B.1.402
B.1.403 B.1.404 B.1.405 B.1.406 B.1.407 B.1.408 B.1.409
B.1.410 B.1.411 B.1.412 B.1.413 B.1.414 B.1.415 B.1.416
B.1.416.1 B.1.417 B.1.418 B.1.419 B.1.420 B.1.421
B.1.422 B.1.423 B.1.424 B.1.425 B.1.426 B.1.427/B.1.429
Epsilon B.1.428 B.1.428.1
B.1.428.2 B.1.428.3 B.1.429.1 B.1.431 B.1.432 B.1.433
B.1.434 B.1.435 B.1.436 B.1.437 B.1.438 B.1.438.1
B.1.438.2 B.1.438.3 B.1.438.4 B.1.439 B.1.440 B.1.441
B.1.442 B.1.443 B.1.444 B.1.445 B.1.446 B.1.447 B.1.448
B.1.449 B.1.450 B.1.451 B.1.452 B.1.453 B.1.454 B.1.455
B.1.456 B.1.457 B.1.457.1 B.1.458 B.1.459 B.1.460
B.1.461 B.1.462 B.1.463 B.1.464 B.1.465 B.1.466
B.1.466.1 B.1.466.2 B.1.467 B.1.468 B.1.469 B.1.470
B.1.471 B.1.472 B.1.473 B.1.474 B.1.475 B.1.476 B.1.477
B.1.478 B.1.479 B.1.480 B.1.481 B.1.482 B.1.483 B.1.484
B.1.485 B.1.486 B.1.487 B.1.488 B.1.489 B.1.490 B.1.491
B.1.492 B.1.493 B.1.494 B.1.495 B.1.496 B.1.497 B.1.498
B.1.499 B.1.499.1 B.1.500 B.1.501 B.1.502 B.1.503
B.1.504 B.1.505 B.1.506 B.1.507 B.1.508 B.1.509 B.1.510
B.1.511 B.1.512 B.1.513 B.1.514 B.1.515 B.1.516 B.1.517
B.1.517.1 B.1.518 B.1.519 B.1.520 B.1.521 B.1.523
B.1.524 B.1.525 Eta
B.1.526 Iota B.1.526.1 B.1.526.2 B.1.526.3 B.1.527 B.1.528
B.1.529 B.1.530 B.1.531 B.1.532 B.1.533 B.1.534 B.1.535
B.1.536 B.1.537 B.1.538 B.1.539 B.1.540 B.1.541 B.1.542
B.1.543 B.1.544 B.1.545 B.1.546 B.1.547 B.1.548 B.1.549
B.1.550 B.1.551 B.1.552 B.1.554 B.1.555 B.1.556 B.1.557
B.1.558 B.1.559 B.1.560 B.1.561 B.1.562 B.1.563 B.1.564
B.1.564.1 B.1.565 B.1.566 B.1.567 B.1.568 B.1.569
B.1.570 B.1.571 B.1.572 B.1.573 B.1.574 B.1.575
B.1.575.1 B.1.576 B.1.577 B.1.578 B.1.579 B.1.580
B.1.581 B.1.582 B.1.585 B.1.586 B.1.587 B.1.588
B.1.588.1 B.1.589 B.1.590 B.1.591 B.1.592 B.1.593
B.1.594 B.1.595 B.1.595.1 B.1.595.2 B.1.595.3 B.1.595.4
B.1.596 B.1.596.1 B.1.597 B.1.598 B.1.599 B.1.600
B.1.601 B.1.602 B.1.603 B.1.604 B.1.605 B.1.606 B.1.607
B.1.609 B.1.610 B.1.611 B.1.612 B.1.613 B.1.614 B.1.615
B.1.616 B.1.617 B.1.617.1 Kappa
B.1.617.2 Delta
B.1.617.3 B.1.618 B.1.619 B.1.620 B.1.621
B.1.622 B.1.623 B.2.1 B.2.6 B.2.10
B.2.11 B.2.12 B.3 B.3.1 B.4 B.4.1
B.4.2 B.4.4 B.4.5 B.4.6 B.4.7 B.4.8
B.5 B.6 B.6.1 B.6.2 B.6.3 B.6.4
B.6.5 B.6.6 B.6.7 B.6.8 B.10 B.11
B.12 B.13 B.14 B.15 B.18 B.19
B.20 B.23 B.26 B.27 B.28 B.29
B.30 B.31 B.32 B.33 B.34 B.35
B.36 B.37 B.38 B.39 B.40 B.41
B.42 B.43 B.44 B.45 B.46 B.47
B.48 B.49 B.50 B.51 B.52 B.53
B.54 B.55 B.56 B.57 B.58 B.59
B.60 B.61 C.1 C.1.1 C.2 C.2.1
C.3 C.4 C.5 C.6 C.7 C.8 C.9
C.10 C.11 C.12 C.13 C.14 C.15
C.16 C.17 C.18 C.19 C.20 C.21
C.22 C.23 C.25 C.26 C.27 C.28
C.29 C.30 C.30.1 C.31 C.32 C.33
C.34 C.35 C.36 C.36.1 C.36.2 C.37 Lamda
D.2 D.3 D.4 D.5 E.1 F.1 G.1
H.1 I.1 J.1 K.1 K.2 K.3 L.1
L.2 L.3 L.4 M.1 M.2 M.3 N.1
N.2 N.3 N.4 N.5 N.6 N.7 N.8
N.9 N.10 P.1 Gamma P.1.1 P.1.2 P.2 Zeta P.3 Theta R.1 R.2 S.1 U.1
U.2 U.3 V.1 V.2 W.1 W.2 W.3 W.4 XA Y.1 Z.1
So much for THE virus.
Humans are capable of extraordinary complex, wellcoordinated,
technical feats, such as all this analysis and global collection
of genetic data. Yet we are collectively so far incapable of
getting sufficient 25OHD to the immune cells of most people.
#99barc
(Lowkey) Oristrell et al. 2021: Barcelona Vitamin D3 and calcifediol supplementation study
This article is not particularly
significant, but the fact that it reports on D3 and calcifediol
supplementation in ~100k people, prior to and into the start of the
COVID19 pandemic, makes it sound interesting. It does not tell us
anything about using calcifediol for emergency repletion of
25hydroxyvitamin D, which is generally the only benefit of using
calcifediol instead of D3.
Update history
20210719: Added sections on
corticosteroid/glucocorticoid (prednisone and dexamethasone) use in
hospitalised COVID19 patients leading to frequently deadly fungal
infections and on a Barcelona observational study of D3 and
calcifediol supplementation which is less interesting than it might
first appear.
20210723: Added graph showing generally very low vitamin D levels of Arabic women in Israel.
20210918: Major revision with more graphs and a list of the crucial articles in section 00 at the start.
© 2021 Robin Whittle Daylesford, Victoria, Australia